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Understanding Protocols and Services

5. Subnetting in action! Let's learn some basics

MTA networking fundamentals IPV four subnetting I will be honest with you; it is not an easy topic. I was really surprised a few years ago when I started teaching MTA networking fundamentals for the first time. I was really surprised that Microsoft decided to add that topic. And I'm very happy they did that, because I do the same. Because you need time, I like to introduce subnetting right away.

That's all I have to say. In a few minutes, when we go through our first example, I can guarantee that you will not understand 100%. And it's not that I'm a bad teacher; I hope I'm not. It is something that you just need sometimes, if you know what I mean. If, let's say, in 5 minutes or 10 minutes, you say, "Yeah, kind of." Yeah, maybe that's all I need. Okay. You have to watch it again and watch some other lectures. There is a really nice document that I prepared for you with everything that you have to know about subnetting, even more advanced topics that are not in MTA.

I decided to include everything so you can read it and just learn more about subnetting. Why not? Let's get started. Ready? Let's start with a very simple example. I was given 192-168-1024. I was given an IP address like that. Now, the first thing we have to discuss and explain is this number. What is 24? Because it's like, okay, I know some subnet masks; okay, I know it's 255-255-2550. It's just an example. But what is this 24? Now, I want you to focus. 24 is the number of bits in your subnet mask. The number of ones in your subnet mask And what do you mean by "you or go"? Here we go. 24 ones. Let me do that for you. 1234-5678-1234-5678.1234-5678-1234-5678. That is in binary.

If you convert all these numbers back to decimal, you will get 255-2550. Now, I'm not sure if you know how to convert the binary. If you do not remember how to do that, we'll go through an example to make sure that you know how to do that. when we just do subnetting. In a few moments, I'll show you how you can do that. Does that make sense? Okay, 24 once. Okay, 8824 once. I hope you're okay with that. Let's move on. Now you have the following question: 19216eight; one; one; zero; slash 24 Now, they told you the following thing: Can you be so nice and divide this network into five subnetworks? What does it mean? Unfortunately, that's what I mentioned. We do not have enough IP addresses. The same applies to private IP addresses.

You can think, "Oh yeah, we have thousands, millions of IP addresses." Well, there are companies that need more than that. And you can't just assign a network here and there. For instance, if you just need a point-to-point connection, just imagine you have two routers that are connected to each other. How many IP addresses will I need? Yeah. Two, one, two That's it. Is it possible I will need more than that? Not really. For a point-to-point connection, I will just need two IP addresses. How many IP addresses can I get on a network like that? Do you remember? Zero is the network. We start with one. What if the previous IP address is 25? Four usable IP addresses and two five Five is a broadcast address. Okay. "Broadcast" means that I want to send a message to everybody. It means I am not allowed to use the first one, which is my network address, or the last one, which is my broadcast address.

So I will ask again: how many usable IP addresses will I get? 254. How many do I need? Well, I need two IP addresses, so I am going to use two IP addresses, and 254 are available. It's not a good thing we don't do it like that. Let's go back to our example. I know I need five subnetworks. Subnetting is easy. Well, I said it was difficult. What I mean by that is that it is easy because you just have to follow a few steps, and every time it is the same. That's why the key is to do it again and again. And then, if you're tired and you say, "No, I don't want to do subnetting anymore," do it again and again and again. Okay, the first thing you have to do is convert the number of networks you need into binary. It means I have to convert the number five to binary. Five to binary That's what I have to do. I'm not sure if you remember how to do that. I will. Just in case, I'll show it to you. We start with table 12864. That's the table that you will use every time you do subnetting. If you're interested, it is two to the power of zero, one, two, and so on.

Let me just remove it. Okay, now we have to convert number five. Okay, we look at the statement. We say no, 128. That's not good. It's zero, zero, eight. No, that's too much. Four. Yeah, that's okay, because five minus four is something I can do. It is one. I am left with one and two. No, that's not good. And one. Yeah, I'm okay. One minus one, that's okay. At the end, you should always get a zero. It means that five in binary is five in binary. Okay, if you're not sure, just do it again. Make sure that you're comfortable with that, because that is something you will need. The second thing we have to do is convert the original subnet mask to binary. 24.

We know how to do that. 24 means we have 24. Yeah. 1234-5678-1234-5678.1234-5678-1234-5678. That was easy. Now a question: How many bits do I really need to get number five? Do I need eight bits? No, I need three bits. Why? Well, you can skip the zeros. Why? Let's say you owe me $100. If I tell you that you owe me that much, it is still £100. Yes, it is. That's why we need three bits. At least three bits are needed to get number five. It has been easy so far, to be honest. Now this is the tricky part. You have to memorise how to do that. When you look at the original subnet mask, you are not allowed to touch anything with one inside, because one is the network and zero is the host.

Okay? You're not allowed to touch anything with one inside. It means you're not allowed to touch the first three octaves. It means they're not going to change. Now you have to take three bits from the last octet because it's the only place that is available for you. How are we going to do that? We just do it like this. 123-4567, eight. So the new subnet mask is 123-4568. It doesn't change. 8123-4568-1234-5678. Now, if I ask you to write it like that, what is it? 20. You must count all ones. So it's 242-5627. Okay, our new subnet mask is slash 27. That is our new subnet mask. If you want to write it that way, it is in binary. If you want to write it to five, write five to the 55th dot. You must now convert this number to decimal. It's in binary. One, two, three. And then you go back to this table. 123-4567, eight.

And then you have to add all the numbers. 128 plus 64 plus 32. Okay. Does that make sense so far? Let me remove a few things from the screen, and we'll continue. Okay, I am ready. So let's summarise what we have calculated so far. We already know that our new subnet mask is slash 27. and we know we need three bits. Okay, that's good. That's a lot. Now, the last step We have to create our ranges.

What does it mean? They asked for five subnetworks. It means that we have to create five subnetworks. We need an increment. We need something that will allow us to make it happen. We need a number. Is it similar to 1918-1910? Then it's 1020. So the increment is ten. What is it? We don't know. And now comes the tricky part. The increment is the last digit in your subnet mask. Then you return to this table and inspect it. So it is one, two, and three. That is your increment. Three bits, right? One, two, three. Our increment is 32. That is your increment. It means our ranges are 19216, eight, dot, one, dot, zero. Then you don't fill the right-hand side. Just go below 192-1681. Our increment is 32.64. If you set it, 128 is not correct. The increment is 32.96. Just be honest. Did you say 128? I'm pretty sure you did. Most people say it. Okay, so now, what is the last IP address in each range? 192-1681.

What is the last IP address before we go to 32? It's not a tricky question. 31 19216:8163.19216:8195, and so on. Yeah, we're done. When we get to 255 or above, you're done. Okay, that makes sense. Okay. I'm pretty sure you have to watch it again and again. Take a piece of paper. Do that. Make sure that you're okay with that. In our next lecture, we're going to give you two or three more examples of subnetting. You can see that you can be asked to answer a question like that on your exam. Thank you very much.

6. Subnetting - more examples and questions

MTA networking fundamentals IPV four subnetting I will be honest with you; it is not an easy topic. I was really surprised a few years ago when I started teaching MTA networking fundamentals for the first time. I was really surprised that Microsoft decided to add that topic, and I'm very happy they did that, because I do the same. Because you need time, I like to introduce subnetting right away.

That's all I have to say. In a few minutes, when we go through our first example, I can guarantee that you will not understand 100%. And it's not that I'm a bad teacher; I hope I'm not. It is something that you just need sometimes, if you know what I mean. If, let's say, in five or ten minutes, you say, yeah, kind of, Yeah, maybe that's all I need. Okay.

You have to watch it again and watch some other lectures. There is a really nice document that I prepared for you with everything that you have to know about subnetting, even more advanced topics that are not in MTA. I decided to include everything so you can read it and just learn more about subnetting. Why not? Let's get started. Ready? Let's start with a very simple example. I was given 192-168-1024. I was given an IP address like that. Now, the first thing we have to discuss and explain is this number. What is 24? Because it's like, okay, I know some subnet masks, okay? I know it's 255-255-2550. It's just an example. But what is this 24? Now, I want you to focus. 24. It is the number of bits in your subnet mask. The number of ones in your subnet mask And what do you mean by "you or go"? Here we go. 24 ones.

Let me do that for you. 1234-5678-1234-5678.1234-5678-1234-5678. That is in binary. If you convert all these numbers back to decimal, you will get 255-2550. Now, I'm not sure if you know how to convert the binary. If you do not remember how to do that, we'll go through an example to make sure that you know how to do that. when we just do subnetting. In a few moments, I'll show you how you can do that. Does that make sense? Okay, 24 once. Okay, 8824 once. I hope you're okay with that. Let's move on. Now you have the following question: 19216eight; one; one; zero; slash 24 Now, they told you the following thing: Can you be so nice and divide this network into five subnetworks? What does it mean? Unfortunately, that's what I mentioned. We do not have enough IP addresses. The same applies to private IP addresses. You can think, "Oh, yeah, we have thousands, millions of IP addresses." Well, there are companies that need more than that. And you can't just assign a network here and there.

For instance, if you just need a point-to-point connection, just imagine you have two routers that are connected to each other. How many IP addresses will I need? Yeah. Two, one, two That's it. Is it possible I will need more than that? Not really. For a point-to-point connection, I will just need two IP addresses. How many IP addresses can I get on a network like that? Do you remember? Zero is the network. We start with one. What if the previous IP address is 25? Four usable IP addresses and two five Five is a broadcast address. Okay. "Broadcast" means that I want to send a message to everybody. It means I am not allowed to use the first one, which is my network address, or the last one, which is my broadcast address.

So I will ask again: how many usable IP addresses will I get? 254. How many do I need? Well, I need two IP addresses, so I am going to use two IP addresses, and 254 are available. It's not a good thing we don't do it like that. Let's go back to our example. I know I need five subnetworks. Subnetting is easy. Well, I said it was difficult. What I mean by that is that it is easy because you just have to follow a few steps, and every time it is the same. That's why the key is to do it again and again. And then, if you're tired and you say, "No, I don't want to do subnetting anymore," do it again and again and again.

Okay, the first thing you have to do is convert the number of networks you need into binary. It means I have to convert the number five to binary. Five to binary That's what I have to do. I'm not sure if you remember how to do that. I will. Just in case, I'll show it to you. We start with table 12864. That's the table that you will use every time you do subnetting. If you're interested, it is two to the power of zero, one, two, and so on. Let me just remove it. Okay, now we have to convert number five. Okay, we look at the statement. We say no, 128. That's not good. It's zero, zero, eight. No, that's too much. Four. Yeah, that's okay, because five minus four is something I can do. It is one. I am left with one and two. No, that's not good. And one.

Yeah, I'm okay. One minus one, that's okay. At the end, you should always get a zero. It means that five in binary is five in binary. Okay, if you're not sure, just do it again. Make sure that you're comfortable with that, because that is something you will need. The second thing we have to do is convert the original subnet mask to binary. 24. We know how to do that. 24 means we have 24. Yeah. 1234-5678-1234-5678. 1234-5678-1234-5678. That was easy. Now a question: How many bits do I really need to get number five? Do I need eight bits? No, I need three bits. Why? Well, you can skip the zeros. Why? Let's say you owe me $100. If I tell you that you owe me that much, it is still £100. Yes, it is. That's why we need three bits. At least three bits are needed to get number five. It has been easy so far, to be honest. The tricky part is now. You have to memorise how to do that. When you look at the original subnet mask, you are not allowed to touch anything with one inside, because one is the network and zero is the host.

Okay? You're not allowed to touch anything with one inside. It means you're not allowed to touch the first three octaves. It means they're not going to change. Now you have to take three bits from the last octet because it's the only place that is available for you. How are we going to do that? We just do it like this. 123-4567, eight. So the new subnet mask is 123-4568. It doesn't change. 8123-4568-1234-5678. Now, if I ask you to write it like that, what is it? 20. You must count all ones. So it's 242-5627. Okay, our new subnet mask is slash 27. That is our new subnet mask. If you want to write it that way, it is in binary. If you want to write it to five, write five to the 55th dot. You must now convert this number to decimal. It's in binary. One, two, three. And then you go back to this table. 123-4567, eight. And then you have to add all the numbers. 128 plus 64 plus 32. Okay. Does that make sense so far?

Let me remove a few things from the screen, and we'll continue. Okay, I am ready. So let's summarise what we have calculated so far. We already know that our new subnet mask is slash 27. and we know we need three bits. Okay, that's good. That's a lot. Now, the last step We have to create our ranges. What does it mean? They asked for five subnetworks. It means that we have to create five subnetworks. We need an increment. We need something that will allow us to make it happen. We need a number. Is it similar to 1918-1910? Then it's 1020. So the increment is ten. What is it? We don't know. And now comes the tricky part. The increment is the last digit in your subnet mask. Then you return to this table and inspect it. So it is one, two, and three. That is your increment. Three bits, right? One, two, three. Our increment is 32. That is your increment. It means our ranges are 19216, eight, dot, one, dot, zero.

Then you don't fill the right-hand side. Just go below 192-1681. Our increment is 32.64. If you set it, 128 is not correct. The increment is 32.96. Just be honest. Did you say 128? I'm pretty sure you did. Most people say it. Okay, so now, what is the last IP address in each range? 192-1681. What is the last IP address before we go to 32? It's not a tricky question. 31. 19216 8163. 19216 8195, and so on. Yeah, we're done. When we get to 255 or above, you're done. Okay, that makes sense. Okay. I'm pretty sure you have to watch it again and again. Take a piece of paper. Do that. Make sure that you're okay with that. In our next lecture, we're going to give you two or three more examples of subnetting. You can see that you can be asked to answer a question like that on your exam. Thank you very much.

7. Let’s talk about IPv6 - the next generation IP address

MTA Networking Fundamentals Subnetting Part Two I hope you are okay with the basic subnetting that I showed you in the previous video. Now I will give you some more examples. As you can imagine, it's very difficult to come up with a question like that on your exam.

They can't really ask you, "Can you calculate all these things?" Why? because it's impossible to check it. To be honest, I don't really care how you do that, as long as you know what the answer is. That's why a question you can get is "one, dot six, slash 29." The question is: do you have the following IP address: 192-168-1629? What is the broadcast address? It means the last IP address in this range. and you all go, right? How can I suddenly decide that I no longer want to be a network engineer?

Now, don't give up. It takes some time. Don't worry; I'll show you how you can do that. Actually, it's pretty simple. It's easier than the previous example. Let's start with 29. What is 29? We know it's 29 once (1234, 5678, 8123, 4567, 824), but we can't see the other one. Here we go. Okay, 29. Once we have 32 bits in total, Okay, 32 spaces here. 293-03-1320 kay. Do you remember in the previous video that I showed you the increment?

Do you remember the increment? It was the last bit. The last bit Now let's just get our table. Do you remember 12864, our binary table? Now it is 123-451-2345. Our increment is eight. That is our increment. We almost always start from zero now, at least for MTA. And you will always work in the last octet, okay? They will not ask you to do anything. For example, look over here. Now, they will not—at least, I do not expect that. So we start with 192-16810.

Now, the increment is eight. It means it's 19216, eight, dot one, dot 819-2168, dot one, dot 816, and one more, I think 24. Okay, the increment is eight. We now know that our IP address was six. So where is it? What is the last IP address in the first range? 1921, 681–719–2168, 115 That's it. I am done. I can see that six is in the first range over here. Okay, it is six. The question was, "What is my broadcast address?" Okay, this is my broadcast address: 192-1681. Seven. The last IP address in the range is called the broadcast address. That is used if you want to send a message to everybody. Do you remember the first IP address in the range? 192-1810? Eight. It is the network address. You can't use these IP addresses for your host printers or network devices. It means that in this case, we have six usable IP addresses. 12345. Six players remain in the second range. Let me just grab a pen. In this range over here, we have 910, 1112, and 1314. That's it. Yeah. You have six usable IP addresses in every single range.

One more, just to make sure you're okay with that. Now I will go a little faster. 19216, eight, dot 75, dot 17, slash 27. Now, I will not do that to you. 28. Okay. There are some examples that can be tricky. I don't want to do that. I'm pretty sure Microsoft will not do that either. That's why I don't want to give you any tricky examples yet. Cisco will do that to you.

But I don't think Microsoft is doing well, which doesn't mean Microsoft is better than Cisco. Well, I will not say anything else. Okay. 192-1687.517. Now 17. Okay, that is our IP address. We know that 28 is our subnet mask. This gives us a total of 28. 123-4567, 8824, 567-8123, four Now increment. Let's re-arrange our table. It's really important to write it down. That's why I do that. I do that on purpose every single time. Do not assume. Oh, yeah, I know the increment. Don't do it then. If you do that 200 times, yeah, fair enough. But it's really important to write it all down.

How many bits? Four. One. Just make sure you can see that. 1234. That is our increment. Broke it. 16 is our increment. Ranges 192-16-8750. Let's start with 019-2168. Dots 75 and 16. 192-168-7532. And so now I can see that I am in this range. Okay. because dot 17 is located over here The last IP address is 192-168-7531. Do you recall the broadcast or network addresses? I hope it makes sense. Please make sure you open the document that is available for you. There is a step-by-step instruction on how to do subnetting. Make sure that you read it, try it, and play with it. Good luck. In our next lecture, we're going to talk about something I do not like. IPV six. Thank you very much.

8. Names Resolution. DNS concepts

MTA networking fundamentals Let's talk about IPV 6. Let's not. Yes, we have to. I do not like IPV6, the next-generation IP address. I'm not sure if I'm just alone. I don't think so. I found a lot of people online who agree with me. And every time I teach networking, I say I do not like IPV. I think it was a big mistake to create it like that. They tried to create a protocol that would be okay for, I don't know, 7 million years. Well, sorry, it's not a good idea. When you think about your mobile phone from ten years ago, do you remember? Take a look at your phone right now.

There is a chance that someone will come up with a new protocol in three months and forget about IP. IPV Six is just where you have to start from scratch. And most companies are not happy to invest a lot of money. Most networks are really complicated, and, you know, it's not possible to say, "Okay, let's implement IPV 6 tonight." No, it can take weeks, months, or years. For many companies, it's a nightmare. It's a lot of money just to get a new IP address. I'm not qualified to tell you whether it was possible to change the existing IPV4. However, I read somewhere online that someone had proposed a solution and that it was feasible. And he calculated that we should be okay for like 50 years, and it would be very easy to implement. Anyway, that's my view. We have to talk about IPV 6. Fortunately, you don't have to know a lot about IPV 6.

You have to memorise that IPV Six.We have 128 bits. And here is an example of an IPV6 address. Yes, just imagine. To prove my point, ask a user to read it to you. My case has been arrested. IPV-6 introduced a new type of address. It's any cast to the closest we have. Multicast is one to many. It was in IPV4 and unicast one-to-one. It was in IPV4 as well. I'm not sure if you noticed a missing type.

Yes, there is no broadcast in IPV 6. However, there is a special multicast address that can and does work as a broadcast address. As I mentioned, IPV Six is not backwards compatible with IPV Four. And that's the biggest mistake, in my opinion. But okay, I will not complain anymore. That's why they created people who designed IPV 6.

They created a lot of solutions to allow you to, for instance, run IPV 6 and IPV 4 at the same time or tunnel both protocols for you. It is critical to understand that you can run both directions simultaneously or tunnel. It means that you can run IPV 6 within IPV 4 or IPV 4 within IPV 6. That's all I wanted to tell you about IPV 6. There was a link to a Cisco website on the previous site. Please make sure that you go there and read a little more if you're interested in the transition available for IPV6 and address types. In our next lecture, we're going to talk about DNS. Thank you very much. Much.

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