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Evaluate a strategy for migrating to Azure
1. 15, 16. evaluate requirements and strategies for the migration
In this video, we're going to evaluate the requirements for the migration of data onto Azure. And we're going to evaluate offline and online migration strategies. So the workloads you intend to migrate, as well as the actual resource requirements, such as hard drive, outspace, compute, and side of processing power, must be considered. Do you need a version of SQL Server or can you use the latest version? Remember that your SQL Database and SQL-managed instance will be running the most recent stable version or a variant thereof. Now, if you need a specific version, you will need a virtual machine. And if so, you need to decide what version of Windows Server is needed. Now, when migrating, what about downtime allowances? Have you allowed for any downtime at all? If not, you will need to do an online migration, which will reduce your options.
Are there dependencies between databases? Remember that the Azure SQL Database can't do cross-database queries. Are there dependencies between databases and applications? What are your security requirements? What are the backup and restore requirements? Do you have any current constraints? What limitations do you anticipate in the future? And what about the location of your data storage? Do you have something like the GDPR, the General Data Protection Act? Maybe the California Consumer Privacy Act or similar requirements? So you can see on the screen that there are five different programmes and apps you can use, and they have different requirements and different uses. So do you need to lift and shift SQL Server to a virtual machine? If so, you should use Azure Migrate. It can also discover and assess your SQL data state at scale. In other words, across your data center, you can get Azure SQL deployment recommendations, target sizing, and monthly estimates.
Do you need to migrate non-SQL objects? So we're talking about connecting DB2, two MySQL, or OracleSAP ASE databases to SQL Server or SQL. If so, then the SQL Server Migration Assistant (SSMA) should be what you're looking at. If you're not lifting and shifting and migrating non-SQL objects, you're migrating SQL Server objects to a SQL Database or a SQL Managed Instance. So if so, do you need to migrate and/or upgrade SQL Server? If so, have a look at the data. Migration Assistant, or DMA. It can help migrate to an Azure SQL Database, to SQL Server on a virtual machine, or to another on-premises server. It can also discover and assess SQL data estates and recommend performance and reliability improvements for your target environment. It will detect compatibility issues between your current database and the target version of SQL Server or Azure SQL. As you know, the Azure SQL database is not fully featured. You can move your schema, your data, and your uncontained objects. Now, do you need to compare the workloads between the source and target SQL Server? If so, then have a look at the database experimentation.
Assistant DEA You can capture the workload of a source SQL Server environment and identify compatibility issues. Now, do you need to migrate open-source databases such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, and MariaDB? If so, have a look at the Azure Database Migration Service DMs. You can have minimal downtime, which is especially good for large migrations. And you can do this online using the premium pricing tier. So for this, you would need to allow outbound port 4 for free. That's the same one that's used for HTTP. So, in addition to Secure Wave, you may require UDP 1434, which is frequently required for SQL Server. You then need to enable the TCP/IP protocol, which is usually not enabled by default. You then create an Azure SQL Database instance. So for that, you need a server-level firewall rule on your server to allow access to the DMs and the Database Migration Service, and then on the target database, you would need Control Database permission. So you need a firewall on your computer or server, control server permissions on your server, and then control database permissions on the target database. Now, this doesn't actually initiate any backups. It uses existing file and log backups. It does not use differential backups, but rather fallen log backups.
Now, can you do it online or not? Well, it depends on where you're migrating from or to. So you can see that if you're migrating from SQL Server to Azure SQL, it can be online if you're going to a managed instance, but it's offline in other cases. If you're migrating from MongoDB, you can do so online or offline. You'll be going to Cosmos DB. In that case, if you're going from MySQL to the Azure database for MySQL, then it's an offline, one-time migration. And if you're going from on-premises PostgreSQL to the Azure database for PostgreSQL, then it would be an online migration. So it would be a continuous-sync organization. So here we've got five different strategies, and as you can see, there is a bit of overlap sometimes. So it really depends on what more accurately defines what you want to do. Do you want to lift and shift SQL Server? Do you want to migrate non-SQL objects? Do you want to migrate or upgrade SQL Server? Do you want to compare workloads or do you want to migrate open-source databases, either offline or online? If so, these are the things that you can use.
2. 19, 20. Azure Migrate
In this video, we're going to start looking at some of the tools that I mentioned in the previous video. I'll begin with Azure migration. So you can see, you can get to it in the Azure Portal. Now, when we're talking about Azure Migrate, do be careful of the terminology. There is the Azure Migration Hub, which includes things like the Data Migration Assistant, the Azure Database Migration Service, and other things. However, the Azure Migration Tool itself has two tools. First of all, discovery and assessment So you can see here how to discover, evaluate, and migrate servers, databases, and web applications. So we can begin creating our own project and specifying details such as location. So, my wonderful project, and I'll provide you with a new resource group as you migrate. So with this, you'll be able to discover and assess on-premises servers running on VMware Hyper-V, so that's all virtualization, and also physical servers in preparation for the migration to Azure. You'll also be able to migrate servers, which means you'll be able to move VMware, VMs, HyperV VMs, physical servers, other virtualized servers, and public cloud VMs to Azure.
So you can see that we've got these assessment tools. So I can click Discover to start, and we've got migration tools for your machine. So click on Discover to start, and you'll get questions like, "Are your servers virtualized?" No. And then you've got some methodology for actually going through your on-premises or cloud environment. So just going back to here, you can also see we have got Discover for the server migration, which gives us the same thing at the end. So these are the two tools of AzureMigrate, which is separate from the Azure Migratehub, which is the overall name for migration and includes things like Azure Data Box. So Azure database products can help move large amounts of offline data to Azure. In essence, they send you the box. This is a storage device with 80 terabytes of usage, and then it can be transported back to Microsoft, where they can load it up themselves on Azure. But these are tools within the wider Azure migration hub. But for the Azure Migrate tools themselves, you have got server migration, and you have got discovery and assessment. So this is how Azure migrate works.
3. 19, 20. SQL Server Migration Assistant (SSMA)
Now in this video, we're going to talk about the SQL Server Migration Assistant. You can see we've gone out of the portal here because this is a separate downloadable program. So. It's a tool designed to automate database migration from Microsoft Access DB to MySQL, Oracle, and SAP ASE. So you can see that there is a different download for each one of these migration sources. So it's not really just one program; it's a series of programs. And you can go to any version of SQL Server since 2012. However, Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL managed instances are more interesting for this course. Now, if I were to click on any of these, you could see that there is an awful lot of documentation that is available for each of these programs.
So you need to worry about whether there is any documentation. There's an awful lot. If you just go back, you can see down here that we have the downloads. So rather than having you watch all of the downloads, the download is actually quite small. It's about eight megabytes, but it required another file that needed to be downloaded for a programme of about 400 megabytes. So rather than actually just watch me download it, I thought I'd download it separately and then just see what happens when you install it. So you can see that there are six steps here. First of all, we create a project, and then we add access data files to the project, select the object, the tables, the views, etcetera. for migration, and then connect to SQL Server or your SQL database, where we can then link the migrated tables (which is optional), and then migrate the data. As a result, the first step would be to develop a project. So that's very easy to do. And you can see where I'm migrating to. So I'll migrate to an SQL database here on Azero, and then it's going to ask me to add databases. Well, I just so happened to have a database here.
We're not actually going to migrate it; it doesn't really matter what's contained inside. Then we can select what we want to migrate. So we've got a series of queries and tables. This database is actually empty, so we're not going to be migrating anything. And then we connect to the Azure SQL database. So this is exactly the same dialogue box that you might get if you were opening up a database in SQL Server Management Studio. So once you've entered that server name, database, and so forth, then you can continue. So there are my details, and it's not actually allowing me to connect just at the moment because I would have to set up a firewall. So what I would do, instead of actually using either Windows, the management portal, or the ExecutiveStore procedure spset firewall rule, is just open it up in SSMS, which would have the same effect. So, now that you've done that, you can choose to link your database and see what happens. So linking modifies your access database. So instead of using the data and accessing it, it uses the data in the SQL Server database. So you've got the one source, and then you can see the final step. Convert selected objects, load into the target database, and migrate data for selected objects.
So I'm just going to finish it there. So this is SQL Server migration helper. So you can see this is the access version, but there are lots of other versions. So there are four other versions. So we've got versions for DB2 for MySQL, Oracle, and SAP ASC. So the SQL Server Migration Assistant should not be confused with the Data Migration Assistant, which is for migrating SQL Server itself. So it can be a bit confusing. The thing that says SQL Server Migration Assistant is not for migrating from SQL Server, but the one that doesn't have SQL Server is for migrating SQL Server. So imagine that this is now just the target. So it's a migration assistant for SQL Server. You don't need that for something that already exists in SQL Server. Then you just need to migrate the data. So this actually converts the objects, tables of views, and so on into SQL Server, which can be Azure SQL Database, Azure SQL managed instance, on-premises, or virtual machine versions.
4. 19, 20. Data Migration Assistant (DMA)
In this video, we're going to look at the Data Migration Assistant. As a result, you can switch from SQL Server to SQL Server or Azure SQL Database. You'll notice that Microsoft recommends using the Azure Database MigrationService for large migrations (in terms of the number and size of databases) because it can migrate databases at scale. So here, you can see some of the capabilities. So you can evaluate an on-premises SQL Server for migration to Azure SQL databases, identify issues that may impact an upgrade, discover new features in the target SQL Server platform, and migrate an on-premises SQL Server to a more recent on-premises instance or an initial virtual machine.
So let's take a look at how we can do this. So first of all, you can download the latest tool from the Microsoft Download Center. So I have previously done this. So here is the DMA, the data migration assistant. So you can see how to get started. It's just a little plus here, and I say this is a new assessment. So I'm going to call this assessment. So, for the assessment type, I'm going to look at a database engine rather than SSIs IntegrationServices, with SQL Server as the source and an Azure SQL Database as the destination. You can use managed instances as well. or on-premises, or Azure Virtual Machine So let's click "Create," and you can see what you can look for. You can check for database compatibility, so you can look for migration blocking issues. So this looks for features that are supported, unsupported, or maybe partially supported that may block migration, and it will give some recommendations for what to do. You can also look at the features to see what features and functions your applications may rely on.
It also claims that new features will be available soon. So see what will be available that you don't already have. So click next. So I need to put myself in; I'm going to use my local server name, and I'm going to trust the server certificate. So click Next, and I'm going to go for a particular database. You can also include extended events or tracer if you want to evaluate those as well. So start the assessment, and in just a few seconds, because this is a very small database, you can see some unsupported features. So SQL Server agent jobs are not available. So we know this about Azure SQL Database: it doesn't use agent jobs. So if I needed that, then I might need to go on to the managed instance. So it doesn't support some other things like Windows authentication, and there may be some features that are partially supported, so that's the SQL Server feature parity. And then we have a look at compatibility issues. This is useful if you're upgrading from, say, SQL Server 2012 to 2019, or if your SQL database is always based on the most recent version. So that is the assessment. And as you can see, you can save, export, restart, and delete these assessments. And you can also upgrade it to the Azure migration hub. So now let's have a look at migration. So again, I'm going to give this a project name.
I'm migrating from an on-premises SQL server to an Azure SQL database. And I can say what I want to migrate to. The schema and the data, and only the schema and the data. So the schema, we're talking about schema, and we're talking about things such as, if I expand this one, the tables, the stored procedures, basically everything that can contain data or be quick to migrate. So we'll be generating a script for this. So I'm going to create this new project. So again, I'm going to connect to my source server. So I must have control server permission on the source. So let's say I was going for this one. There's a reason why this one won't actually happen. and I can assess the database before migration. So that gets me back to the assessment. So I'm not going to do that. So now I'm going to get to a particular server. So this is my Azure server. And here we go. And again, I need to control database permissions on the target database. So I need to control the server on the server, the source, and the database on the target. So if I were to pick my Azure SQL database, you can see we're running into a problem. The issue is that the collision is not the same. So the collision and how it sorts So here is the sort of code that you would need to change the collision. As you can see, I still have the same collisions for this database, the 74-61 database. So I'm going to now go back and select the 74.61 database, so that has the same schema. It then says, "Okay, what do you want to export?" So these are tables and store procedures.
As a result, my schema objects. So it's not going to export the data at this time. And you can see here that it would create the tables so that I could deploy the schema. So there you have it. And next, I'll be migrating the table. So it's time to run this script on my database. And if I go into my database on Azure, you can see we now have these additional tables. So next, I can migrate the data and select which data I want to migrate. So I'm just going to migrate a very small amount of data and then start the migration process. And you can see that it only took 7 seconds. And if I go back in, because it's a very small amount of data, and I say, "Select table department," we'll get the five roles that I've got in my source data. So this is an overview of the data migration assistant. So it allows you to go from your database engine in SQL Server to an Azure SQL Database managed instance, an on-premises SQL Server, or a virtual machine version. However, please note what Microsoft says. If you've got large migrations, we recommend you use the Azure Database Migration service, which we will be looking at in the next video.
5. 19, 20. Azure Database Migration Service (DMS)
In this video, we're going to look at the Azure database migration service elsewhere. It's called Migration Services. So it's a fully managed service to enable seamless migrations to Azure data platforms with minimal downtime, so it can allow for online migration. Now, I should point out that this is a constantly expanding service. So you can see, for instance, that the Azure Data Studio is now in preview. So, what we're going to do is go into the Azure portal and search for migration.
And here we can see Azure database migration services. and I'm going to create a new service. So we need a subscription. We've got that. We need a results group. I'm going to call this the Migration Service. We need a name. So my migration service needs a location. So there are plenty of locations to choose from. You can choose a service mod. Now this says, "Where is the worker?" Where the thing that is actually going to do the work is going to be hosted Is it going to be in the cloud or is it going to be on premises? Well, I'm going to say it's a cloud. Now this is probably the most important part of this: the pricing tier. So you can see the number of vehicles that you can have for this migration service. And at standard, you can choose from one, two, or four vehicles.
So you can click. How can I choose the right vehicles? And there's an article; it's not very informative, to be honest, because the price is zero, zero. So it really doesn't matter how many vehicles you do. I go up to the maximum value. But are you happy with the standard? Let's go for the premium. You can see the premium is called Vcourse, and it is free for the first six months. Now you can use it for a total of one year, and you can create two services per subscription: DMs services and database migration services. What is the distinction between standard and premium? The standard tier supports offline migrations. Only the premium version supports both offline and online. So as I said, that is probably the most important part. So I'll just go through the rest of it. You can see we need to do something in networking. So I need a new virtual network name. So I'll call this migration VN and create it. So, as you can see, it is now deploying. So I'm going to pause the video until it has finished deploying. So now you can see the deployment has succeeded, and I can now create my first migration project. So I'm on Premium with four vehicles, which allows me to do offline and online; the standard only allows me to do offline. So let's click on "New Migration Project." So here is my migration project. So I'm going from SQL Server, and you can see the various options that I've got for a particular target server.
So, if I were coming from Postgres, Postgres would be my destination. The same is true for MySQL and MongoDB. That would go to Cosmos DB. And I can choose to have the schema-only migration. So that includes the empty tables and the data migration. Or I can create a project only, which would allow me to create the project and execute it later. And as you can see, before you start a migration, we recommend using the DMA, which we took a look at in the previous video. So we need to create a target. Azure SQL database. DMA is used to accomplish this. We can apply fixes to that. and we deploy the schema using the DMA. done all that. So create and run activities. So you can see here that I've got to enter my SQL Server instance name. So this would need an FQDN, a fully qualified domain name, or an IP address. And then, following that, you go through each of these other steps. So you select the databases, and you select the target.
You would map to target databases. As a result, this will be mapping to new databases. Unless you've got a database with the same name, you would be configuring migration settings and selecting tables to be affected. And then you would have a summary, and you would enter an activity name for the migration. You could then click on "Start Migration" to run it and monitor the migration from there. And then, once complete, you would verify that the target database has been migrated. So this is the Azure Database Migration Service. And as you saw, it is for putting SQL Server, Pulse, Google, MySQL, or MongoDB onto the Azure databases. Now, there are, of course, other migration strategies. You could use BCP, the Bolt Copy programme that can be used for connecting from an on-prem or SQL Server on a virtual machine to Azure SQL. You could use the command "bulk insert" so you could log data from Azure Blob storage.
You could use SSIS SQL Server Integration Services Packages, so that could be used for ETL extract, transform, and load. And you can use Spark or Azure data factories. So I just want to point out that, even though we're concentrating on these specific Azure migrations in this course, there are other ways of having a migration strategy. So these are various ways to implement an offline or online migration strategy. If you're doing it online, then make sure that you choose the premium pricing tier, which is about a dollar for every 3 hours and allows online continuous migration and offline migration, as well as faster speeds. But you can also have a free six months. So this is how you can migrate your data to Azure.
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