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Configure connectivity

1. Understanding TCP/IP

I want to talk about something I like to call the language of the Internet. Okay? So a lot of you guys may have heard of TCP/IP version 4. My thing is, I don't really know what you guys know and don't know. They kind of expect you to know a little bit about networking when you come into this exam and everything. So at least I want to make sure that you guys have a little bit of a foundation in TCP and IP before we get into the concepts that you're definitely going to want to focus on for the real world, as well as, of course, the exam. TCPIP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. Internet Protocol. just to give you a quick rundown.

Years and years ago, in the 1960s, the Department of Defense and the United States and its allies were working on the concept of being able to route network traffic over long distances. And the logic was that if a missile or something else took out a military base, they would still have network communications. And so they created a thing known as "packet switching." Fast forward a little bit: they needed a protocol that would allow these packets, these little bits of information, to travel across long distances over a networking system, which they were, of course, doing with the phone system. What they did is they built what is now called TCPIP—the concept behind TCPIP. Originally, in those days, the Internet was called ARPANET.

They developed many of these concepts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and eventually, in the early 1980s, they officially standardised TCP/IP, despite having multiple versions of TCP/IP. Version 4 was the version of TCP/IP that introduced the concept of the IP version for the addressing system that we use, okay? And then, of course, there was actually version five, and there's actually version six, which is a newer addressing system. And, believe it or not, there are a seven and an eight. A lot of people don't realise that, but the only versions of TCP/IP you really ever hear about are four and six.

The original addressing system was four, and the newer one was six. Not many people have jumped on board with it yet, including ISPs and others, as well as companies like Facebook and Google, which we'll discuss further later. But the key to understanding TCP/IP version 4 is that all of our devices, including computers, have network interfaces, also known as network adapters. You can call them network interface cards, Nicks, or you can call them network adapter cards, okay? But the network interface cards all come with this thing called a Mac address, which is a media access control address.

The Mac address is an address that is managed by the IEEE, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. The problem with this Mac address, which we also call the physical address or hardware address, is that it's not a router address. It won't work in what is known as a routing system, in which the routers are the devices that route our traffic all over the world. There must be some type of system that can allow us to route traffic through this type of routing device. They call that a logical addressing system. Okay? So, of course, if you've seen IP addresses, you know, they look something like this. 192, 168, or say 101. That's a look at an example of an IP address. Now, an IP address is a 32-bit number. These are called octets.

As a result, 192, 168 is an octet. 100 is what? Octet. Octets are worth eight binary bits. Okay? Eight binary bits Well, there are four of these, right? Four octets times eight. So that's 32. So TCP/IP is a 32-bit addressing system. If you want to use a calculator, I'll quickly bring up my calculator for you. If you were to pull up a calculator, okay, switch it to scientific mode and do the math on that. Two to the power of 32 to the power of 32 equals 4,294,967,296 addresses—roughly 4.3 billion. That is it. That is all the addresses that the Internet has available when it comes to TCP/IP version 4, okay? Of course, you can imagine in the 1960s and 1970s, they were like, "Well, that's a lot of addresses." Well, fast forward. You get into the 1980s, and it's opened up to the world. They're letting schools and universities go.

By the 1990s, a guy named Tim Burnsley and his team of people had created the first Web page. And then things went crazy. Everybody wanted to be part of the Internet. Everybody wanted to have an IP address. And what they ended up doing was breaking addresses up into these things called classes. So you can tell what class an IP address is by the very first octet, okay? So, for example, if you had a class A address, that would be an address from one to 127, although you're actually not allowed to use this 127 address because it's an address called the "Loopback," which actually represents the software bindings for the TCP/IP drivers on your machine. It's actually a way you can diagnostically test your machine by doing what's called a "ping" against this 127. So you actually can't use that on the Internet.

They did make one big mistake when they did that. They didn't just reserve 127. They reserved all 16 million addresses that are associated with that. So it's actually 126. And then you have this thing called a subnet mask. And the subnet mask for a class A address is 25500. Okay? And if you were a business that bought from your ISP, or if the Internet was managed by the Internet Society back then, But if you purchase those, then you would basically own 16.7 million addresses that were reserved for you. The problem is, if you had a company that just had, let's say, 100,000 computers and they wanted to be out on the Internet, they would purchase a Class-A and they would get 16.7 million addresses. That was very wasteful. They didn't actually need that many, but they were given that money.

And then you had what was called a "Class B" address, or an address that starts at 128 and goes to 191. And the default subnetmask is 255.255.000. If you bought one of those at the time, you had access to approximately 650 addresses. Again, if a company just had 1000 addresses and purchased a Class B, they were given 65,000 addresses, and you can imagine that was way more than they really needed, okay? And then finally you had Class C, and that was 192 to 223, and the subnet mass is 255-255-2550. And if you had one of those, you'd have a meagre 254 addresses at your disposal. Okay, so there are lots and lots of Class C addresses, but there's just a small amount of addresses that you have, so these addresses would get divvied out. Now there's also a Class D. We call those the unicast classes, the top three.

And class D ranges from 224 to 239; That is what we refer to as the multicast range. Multicasting is used for sending a stream out to multiple machines at once, so you have to have a special address for that. And then they also had a class E, 240 to 255, which they actually call the experimental range, OK? And they ended up not doing anything with them. However, the first three classes govern the vast majority of the internet and all that. You can tell that this guy right here is a class C. You can tell by his subnet math or his first 192 that he is a class C. And if you're going by the default, his subnet mask would be 255.255.254. Okay, so what is the subnet mask? The subnet mask represents how it breaks the IP address into two sections.

I always like to use the example of a phone number, okay? I don't know what area code you're from. Let's say that you're from the Atlanta area, which is where I'm from; I would use 40 four. And let's say that my phone number is like this: 123-4567. Okay? So at least here in the United States, where I am, we would have 404-123-4567. I'm not going to get into country codes and all that, but if you think about a phone number, well, we all can look at a phone number and tell that it's going to break into two main sections. We have the area code here, and then we have the rest of the number.

The remainder of the number must be distinct by at least one digit. So when people make phone calls in the United States, for example, let's say I'm over in California and I call this number, the only thing that the phoneswitches really care about when traffic is being routed to this 404 area code is that 404 area code. Once the signal gets routed to the 404 area code, then the rest of the number kicks in. This number must be unique in that area code, though. You can't have somebody else who's 123-4567. There must be someone who is 1234, 568-123-4569, and so on, but not that exact number. And that's how addressing works as well, except we don't call them area codes. Think of an area code as being like a subnet, okay?

The remainder of this number is known as the network portion or subnet portion, and the unique portion is known as the host portion, and it must be unique by at least one digit. Okay? So it's sort of like that when it comes to TCP, IP, and all that good stuff. We have to have a separation between the subnet address and the host. Now why is that? Well, first off, guys, a subnet is something that takes a large group of devices and breaks it into smaller groups, okay? And I always use the analogy that it's kind of like imagining a building with no rooms, just the outer walls, and you have a large group of business people that have to communicate in that building and collaborate with each other, and everybody's trying to talk at the same time. OK, well, this is how network computers are. Network devices work.

When you connect a large number of devices to the same network and there is nothing to divide them into groups, they all try to talk at the same time, and the network becomes extremely slow. One of the things that TCP/IP does is allow us to break up a large group of devices into smaller, more manageable chunks, okay? So that's one of the things we get out of utilising TCPIP. These smaller chunks are called "subnets." We need subnets in a network for the same reason we need rooms in a building. They allow us to break things and separate things from other things. What does the separation imply now? Well, there's a device called a router, okay? A router lets us separate our devices into different subnets, into different sections, okay? And of course, we do have a router that connects us to the Internet as well.

Now you may say, "Well, I've only got one router." Well, if you're a small business or home network, you only need one router. But if you're a very large business, you might need to separate yourself up into these different subnets. You can also use a device known as a layer three switch, okay? And then you can create these things called "VLANs," which are virtual subnets. I'm not going to get into all that right now, though. Okay, so what this does, if you look at the subnet mask, is it breaks.

These ones right here are in binary. If you were to convert it to binary, 255 would be eight ones. So that's eight ones and then eight zeros. Okay? So what you're looking at there is a one called a network bit, and then a host bit is a zero. Okay? All right, again, not to get too deep here because this is not a networking class, but just to break that down for you. So the ones are sort of like the area code for TCP/IP, and then the host is the uniqueness.

All right? Everything's got to be unique. So this right here is sort of like your area code. This would represent the subnet. That address would be assigned to everyone on that TCP/IP subnet. And this right here would represent your actual unique host identifier. Okay? And there's a short way to write this.

A lot of people don't draw out the subnet anymore like that. They'll put a slash 24, and they call that the prefix or the Cider Classical Center domain routing notation prefix, which is sort of the newer name for it. If you were to change this, and you changed it to 16, for example, then your binary would look like Oops. Your binary would look like this, okay? And your third octet would look like that. So you have 16 bits there instead. If you change that to eight, then it would look like that. A lot of people think that it becomes a class A or B when you do that. That's actually not true. If you look up the real standard TCPIP by just changing the subnet, math does not change the class of the address.

The address is still going to be a class C. Okay? So again, we're not going to get too deep into subnetting. This course doesn't get into subnetting. The exam doesn't get into subnetting, so we're not going to get too deep into that. But that gives you a little bit of the rundown.

Okay, but the main thing is—as you can see here—that in these classes in the 1990s, they gave out all these addresses, but they didn't really manage things as well as they would have liked. By 1994, the Internet Society had realised that they were rapidly running out of addresses. So in 1094, they began working on TCP/IP version 6. But here's the problem: They weren't going to have enough time. By a few years later, we would have run out of addresses. So in this next little segment, I want to show you what they did to handle that. And it's actually going to help you understand the next topic as well.

2. Understanding Network Address Translation and Proxy Servers

So, if you watched my previous lecture about TCP/IP version 4, where I left off was that in the 1990s, they were running out of addresses and were already working on a new version of TCP/IP that would give them a lot more addresses. OK. And of course, with TCP/IP version 6, they were going to get a 128-bit addressing system. So TCP/IP version six is a 128-bit addressing system, whereas version four was only a 32-bit addressing system. Okay? If you think about it and do the math, you can come over here to my calculator. With version 4, I was going to get 4.3 billion addresses. But with version six, if I do two to the power of 128, I would get this crazy number here that's 38 digits long, which is actually 340 under civilian combinations. Now, I know you guys probably think I'm making that up. That's actually a real number.

Okay? 340 undecided combinations Now, what does that mean? Well, essentially what that means is that a lot of times people joke and say, "Oh, every man, woman, and child could have like, ten IP addresses, and we still wouldn't run out of addresses." Actually, every man, woman, and child on this planet right now could have an IP address for every hair on their body, and they would only be using almost half of those addresses. Almost half. Okay, so that should tell you something. There are a lot of addresses in version six. Of course, as I always like to say, if there's one thing we learned from history, it's that we don't learn from history, right? We'll still probably run out of time in ten years or something. But anyway, here's the problem: In 1994, they weren't ready.

They were standardized, and they were trying to figure it all out. They weren't going to be able to do it in time. The Internet was growing by leaps and bounds. So what happened is that this thing called Nat got implemented. Network address translation Okay, so I want to just quickly give you a drawing and show you what Nat did. Let's look at the way things were for companies before Nat came out. So before Nat ever came out, you needed a router. That's still true today. We've got to have a router.

So we'll just say this little device here is our router, and of course our ISP would give us a connection to our company. This little cloud symbol that I'm making here is going to represent my Internet connection. just kind of cleaning it up a little bit. All right. And so we've got our Internet coming into our router. Okay? So even in the 1990s, we had to come in through a router. Of course, some of you guys may say, "Well, I had a dial-up connection." Well, so did I. I know what you're talking about. But I did work for a company in the 1990s that had a router. If you were a business with a large number of computers trying to connect to the Internet, you would most likely have a router. And then we're going to have another device over here called a switch. Of course, in the 1990s, it was probably going to be a hub.

Switches didn't come out until the late 1990s. Switches give you much better performance and security on a network. Again, not to turn this into networking 101, but clients normally connect to your switch. Okay? So I might have, let's say, these three devices here and here. These are network cables plugging into the switch. Okay? Let's say that this is 1000 computers. We're talking about 1,000 computers here. Okay? I'm not going to draw a thousand boxes, obviously, but each computer needs an IP address. Your ISP would give you an address. I'm just going to make up an address right here. Here's the address I'm just making up. And your ISP would also have to provide you with addresses for your other computers, so that's when you'd end up purchasing or leasing a large amount of addresses, which is where you spend money, and they end up giving you way more than you need in the 1990s.

And this is where things got mismanaged, okay? So the problem is, before, in the 1990s, I was trying to get all these computers connected to the Internet. I would need over a thousand addresses to do that, okay? Over 1000. So the world's stock of iPads was being used up, right? Now, what happened was that, in 1998, of these three guys, one worked for Intel, one worked for IBM, and one worked for Cisco. They came together and created a protocol called Nat. Nat is a routing protocol. Okay? And it can allow routers to separate things into two different networks. You can separate your internal network from the Internet. The internal network is called the private network, and the Internet is called the public network.

Okay? So it separates those two things. Of course, in order to do that, they had to reserve some IP addresses from the Internet that could be used internally. These IP addresses are called private IP ranges. And here's what the private IP ranges are: Ten x. Okay. You can do whatever you want with the X's. You can set the addresses to whatever you want. 170, 216 X. That's not the whole range, but you can also change the XS on that. Then there's 192, 168 X. Okay? And so those are your three main private IP ranges. There was another reserved range called 16925, four X. And that's for something called API PA that I'll get into later. Okay? But these are your three ranges. Now the beauty of this is that every person on the planet and every company on the planet can use these addresses on their internal networks. Everybody can.

So, for example, I could give my router 100 0 1 internally. So my router has at least two interfaces. There is a private interface and a public interface. I can give these addresses to each of my clients internally. Okay, maybe this server is right here. And the best part is that I have all 1000 of my computers connected to the Internet, but I only needed one public address. So when 11998 came out, it completely changed everything. Okay? All right, so today, lots and lots of people use Nat. Of course, if you fast-forward about ten years, by the year 2008, we were starting to run out of addresses again, even with the help of Nat. And then, of course, what happened was that IP version six was out, and a lot of your ISPs were able to transition over to it, which brought back millions and millions of addresses.

Then companies like Facebook and Google, which use a large number of addresses, migrated much of their infrastructure. So TCP/IP version 4 has been able to continue longer than it probably should have continued. IP version six, honestly, is a better routing system. It is superior and more secure because it employs IP and IPsec for encryption. We don't really talk about IP 6 here. That's not something that's tested on the MD 100. We're just kind of focusing on the topics that we need to focus on here. However, it is a much more secure and hierarchical system than Version 4 was originally. But the majority of the world is still just using version 4. Okay, now there's one more thing I want to say. Nat is a routing protocol, but there is something else you can put in at a company instead of just using that by itself.

A lot of companies have implemented something called a proxy server. Proxy servers are also known as "web security gateways" at times. So you can buy these as appliances, and they're called Web security gateways. Okay? So instead of a router doing that, I could actually get what is known as a "proxy server" that's going to perform Nat for me. Okay? And that proxy server will basically do the same thing as Nat proxies, though one thing that's neat about them is that they can do a lot of jobs. Okay? Proxy servers can be a firewall for you. They can even be what's called an "application layer." VPN can be supported by firewall proxy servers. Proxy servers can do that. Proxy servers, of course, can perform routing functions.

And one of the big things it does is something called "web caching" as well as URL control. Okay, so what does all that mean? Okay, firewall, we'll talk about firewalls in one of our later discussions or in a previous discussion. I'm sorry; we've talked about it previously. VPN, and we're going to talk about that coming up. Nat, we're talking about routers, route traffic, web caching, and URL control. Now, those are two things. Web caching makes it so that when one person goes to a website, with the help of Nat, Nat's going to transition it from private to public and allow it to go out to the Internet. But here's the beauty of it: If this person right here were to go to that same website, the proxy server has already cached all the images and text and stuff. So it actually gives you the simulation of having a faster Internet connection. It preserves your Internet connection and helps improve your performance.

URL control, or uniform resource locator control, can also be used to police where people go on the Internet. You can use proxy servers to prevent people from visiting certain websites and so on. So this is one of the big benefits of a proxy server. I'll also be showing you how to configure the proxy settings on Windows 10 in the coming weeks. But hopefully that gives you an understanding of what Nat does, the concept of a proxy server, and a little bit of history, where things were and how we got to where we are. Okay? I'll also give you guys some hands-on experience. I'm going to go through some demonstrations that are coming up.

3. Configuring the TCP/IP settings on Windows 10

And then from there, you're going to notice there is a button that's going to show up called Network and Internet. So we'll find the Network and Internet button right here, click it, and then, if you have an Ethernet adapter, which is a wired adapter, click Ethernet. If you were doing wireless, you would have a WiFi adapter here. So I'm going to choose Ethernet, and this is where I can change my configuration, okay? So if I wanted to change my TCP/IP settings, I would click "Change Adapter Options" here, and then you'll notice it's just going to redirect you to the control panel.

Okay? So my network adapter card that's enabled right now—you can kind of ignore these other ones right now—is connected to my little virtual network that I'm using for my VMs, my virtual machines that I'm using to teach this class with. So if I want, I can double-click that, and then I can click Properties here, and from there I can manage my TCP/IP settings. There's TCP/IP four and TCP/IP six for you. OK, I also want to point out, while we're here, that you have a couple of things here. You have a link layer topology, a discovery responder, a link layer topology, a discovery mapper, and this protocol called LDL DP. These two things are what allow Windows machines to announce to other Windows machines that they're there and allow them to find each other. The mapper lets your Windows 10 machine find other Windows machines, and the responder lets you respond to other Windows machines.

If you don't want other Windows machines to see you, you can announce and request that you announce your presence. You can get rid of the responder. The responder makes it where Windows Ten announces that it's there. If you turn that off, you'll no longer announce that you're there. You can disable the ability of your Windows Ten computer to find other Windows machines for whatever reason. Of course, you can also manage all this through your firewall as well. But I just wanted to point that outthat's what LLDP is this ll this linklayer topology, discover responder and Discovery mapper. The protocol is as follows: what does that do, okay? But here is TCP/IP 4, and you'll click it to go to Properties. And as you can see, I've set a static IP address. Okay? Now I've set a static IP address because I have a little bitty network here that I'm working with. But in the real world, most of the time, people get their addresses from a service called DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

A static address, when you put that in, is going to make it so your computer's IP address never changes. It's always going to stay the same. Okay? Your computer is always going to stay the same. So you'll notice here that I've got my IP address, my subnet mask, and my default gateway. My default gateway is my router, and my DNS server, which is what does the named IP address resolution for me, is also at this address. And that is actually this server, the myNycdc one, which is my domain controller. So I just switched over to my domain controller. And if I go to this machine's TCP/IP properties, I can start Settings, navigate to Network and Internet Ethernet, and change adapter options. So on the domain store, you'll notice it will kick you back if you try to do it straight from there. It's a security measure. Go to Change Advanced Sharing. All right, I can go to this Network and Sharing Center and change it after Settings.

I know it's a bunch of clicks. Notice that my domain controller has two nicks. In this case, he has an external nick and an internal nick. The external nick is reaching the Internet. The internal nick is what is communicating with my little private network. So, if I look at the private network TCP IPproperties, I see that the 19216 is for DNS. He's pointing to his loopback address, which just means he's pointing to himself. The loopback is pointing to yourself. Okay? Now this address here is the one that is connected to the Internet. All right? Now, actually, on my little server, not to turn this into a server class, I just wanted to show you guys real quick. If I go to Tools and I click on Routing Remote Access Service, you're going to notice that I've installed Nat and I have the internal nick and the external nick.

And so my little Windows 10 computer is pointing to this internal nick as its router, which is doing routing for me right now. Okay? Now, I'm not a proxy server. That doesn't mean I'm a proxy. I'm just doing that because the proxy has a bunch of other features that I talked about in my previous lecture. Okay? Now what if I wanted to support DHCP? I could install DHCP on my server, and I would have a tool here called DHCP that I could use to hand out addresses to my computers. But right now, I'm just doing a little static address. I'm going to jump back over to my Windows 10 computer here. Okay? He's got a static address. His address will never change.

It'll just stay the same. If I did have a DHCP service on my network, I could switch to obtain an IP address automatically. And I want you guys to look right here. Look closely. This alternate configuration tab appears when I do that. Notice it's not there when I change the static. It is there when I change the obtained. So, whenever your computer is set to get an address, alternate configuration will take effect. from DHCP, and it announces that it needs an address. But let's say nobody responds. Let's say your network's DHCP server is down and doesn't respond. At that point, your computer is going to use something called "AP IPA," or automatic private IP addressing, and it's going to give itself an address of 16925 four. You may remember my little Nat diagram that I drew that showed you that 16925 was four.

So, if I had ten computers boot up, they would all have 16925 4-bit addresses, with the last two octets generated at random. Granted, whenever a computer randomly generates an address, it announces itself to make sure there's no conflict. And if there is a conflict, it'll change it. But my point is that you'll get one of those addresses, and really the only thing this is going to achieve is that it's going to let your computers talk to each other with one of those addresses that they give themselves. The downside is that they're not going to be able to get out to the internet; they're not going to be able to go through a router. So API-PA is not really a good thing. In the real world, if you're dealing with DHCP, your best bet is to have two DHCP servers so that if one fails, you have backup redundancy. You could also go with user-configured. This is a static address that you can fail over to.

So if you put a static address in, it would make it so that your computer would announce that it's there to a DHCP server. If no DHCP server responded, then it would move and use this address. So that's what AP IPA is at this user-configured address. Okay. Alright, so I'm not actually going to configure those settings right now on my machine. I'm going to leave it alone and stick with what I've got. All right. So now I'm going to show you how you could have gotten in here using the Control Panel. So, if I come down here to search, I'll enter the word control. We'll come up to the control panel. And once you get into ControlPanel, switch over to large icons. And then we would go to the Network and Sharing Center. Okay. So we'll go there, and then we'll click Change adapter settings. And then here we are, in the same place we were a second ago.

So I can double-click here, go to properties, and configure my IP settings there. Okay, I'm going to go to the network and the internet. And then you're going to see Proxy right here. So I'm going to click proxy at that point. Come down here at the bottom. I could switch this on. I could put in if my proxy server was at this address here, zero, one, and then whatever the port is; a lot of times the port is 80. You would put that in. Okay. And so then you would click save, and at that point you would have your proxy server turned on. So it's pretty easy enough. It is something you need to be aware of for the exam, but what a proxy server is and then where you would go to do it make it pretty easy to turn that on. I don't have a prop.

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