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9. Process Capability - Gage Blocks Sets and Calipers
9. Process Capability - Gage Blocks Sets and Calipers
Process capability. Monitoring gauge block sets with individual gauge blocks may be purchased up to 20 inches in size. Naturally, the length tolerance of the gaugeblock increases as the size increases. Typical gauge block sets vary from eight to 81 pieces. A typical 81 P set contains the following items, depending on the application: 10,000th blocks, 901-00-1002 up blocks, 490-101-0102 up to 0.14, 950th blocks, 19 0.0500.1 up to zero, 950 one-inch blocks, 41002, and 40 zero. For the purpose of stack protection, some gauge manufacturers provide wear blocks that are either 0:50 inches or 0:1 inches in thickness. Calipers are used to measure length.
The length can be an inside dimension, an outside dimension, height, or depth. Some callipers are used for only one of these lengths, while other callipers can be used to measure all four types of lengths. Calipers are generally one of four types: spring calipers, dial calipers, Bernier callipers, or digital calipers. Spring callipers are transfer tools that perform a rough measurement of wide, awkward, or difficult-to-reach part locations. These tools usually provide a measurement accuracy of approximately 116/100 of an inch. Although these callipers are referred to as spring calipers, there are different varieties—spring joint, firm joint, lock joint, etc.—that describe the type of mechanical joint that connects the two sides of the unit. A spring calliper measurement is typically transferred to a steel rule by holding the rule vertically on a flat surface.
The calliper ends are placed against the rule. For the final readings, see the figure calipers. Fernier callipers use a Varnier scale to indicate the measurement of length. Length, depth, and height are variations of the length measurement capability they provide. Vernier callipers typically have a resolution of 0 (zero) (zero) one of an inch. Although vernier callipers are still available, they have been replaced with digital dial callipers in many applications. Vernier Calipers and Dial Calipers The Vernier scale Bernier scales are used on a variety of measuring instruments, such as height gauges, depth gauges, inside or outside vernier calipers, and geartooth verniers. Except for the digital varieties, readings are made between a Bernie plate and beam scales. By design, some of these scales are vertical and some are horizontal. Shown below is an illustrative example of how a reading is made.
Dial Calipers Dial callipers function in the same way as a vernier caliper. However, the measurement is indicated by a combination of a scale reading to the nearest one of an inch and a dial indicating the resolution to one of an inch. The dial hand typically makes one resolution for each zero-one of an inch of travel of the calliper jaws. Misreading the scale by one-tenth of an inch is a common error in reading dial calipers, as is using the callipers and applications that require an accuracy of 0.00010 of an inch, which is unrealistic for this type of caliper. Digital Calipers and Optical Comparators digital Calipers Digital callipers use a digital display instead of the dial and scale found in dial calipers.
Most digital callipers have the ability to be read in either inches or millimeters, and the zero point can be set at any point along the travel display. The most common resolutions are zero, zero, zero, zero, and five-tenths of an inch. Errors in reading the digital display are greatly minimized. However, like dial calipers, digital callipers are often used in applications that require a different device to attain the required accuracy. For example, some digital callipers have data interface capabilities to send measurement data directly into a computer program. Improvements to digital callipers have made them more reliable for use in machine shop conditions, including locations where cutting oil and metal chips come into contact with the calipers. Optical Comparators A comparator is a device for comparing a part to a form that represents the desired part's contour or dimension. The relationship between the form and the part indicates acceptability.
A beam of light is directed upon the part to be inspected, and the resulting shadow is magnified by a lens system and projected onto a viewing screen by a mirror. The enlarged shadow image can then be inspected and measured easily and quickly by comparing it with a master chart or outline on the viewing screen. To pass inspection, the shadow outline of the object must fall within the predetermined tolerance limits. Surface Plates and Micrometer Surface Plates To make a precise dimensional measurement, there must be a reference plane or starting point. The ideal plane for dimensional measurement should be perfectly flat. Since a perfectly flat reference plane does not exist, a compromise in the form of a surface plate is commonly used.
Surface plates are customarily used with accessories like a toolmaker's, flat angles, parallels, V-blocks, and cylindrical gauge blocks stacked. Dimensional measurements are taken from the plate up. since the plate is the reference surface. Surface plates must possess the following important characteristics: sufficient strength and rigidity to support the test piece, and sufficient and known accuracy for the measurements required. Micrometers, also known as mics, are commonly used handheld measuring instruments. Micrometers with frame sizes ranging from 0-5 inches to 48 inches can be purchased. Normally, the spindle gap and design permit a one-inch reading span. Thus, a two-inch micrometre would allow readings from one inch to two inches.
The majority of common microphones have an accuracy of 0.1 inch. With the addition of a Bernier scale, an accuracy of zero zero zero zero one of an inch can be obtained. Improvements in micrometres have led to supermicrometers, which, with laser attachments and when used in temperature- and humidity-controlled rooms, are able to make linear measurements to 1,000,000th of an inch. Micrometers consist of a basic C-frame, with the part measurement occurring between a fixed anvil and a movable spindle. Measurement readings on a traditional micrometer are made at the barrel and dimple interface. Micrometers may make inside, outside, or thread measurements based upon the customization desired. The two primary scales for reading a micrometre are the sleeve scale and the thimble scale.
Most micrometres have a one-inch throat. All conventional micrometres have 40 markings on the barrel, consisting of 0.25 inches each. The 0100 inch, 0200 inch, 0300 inch, etc. Markings are highlighted. The thimble is graduated into 25 zero zero zero one inch markings. Thus, one full revolution of the thimble represents 0.25 inches. Ring gauges and plug gauges Ring gauges are used to check external cylindrical dimensions and may also be used to check tapered, straight, or threaded dimensions. A pair of rings with hardened bushings is generally used. One bushing has a hole of the minimum tolerance, and the other has a hole of the maximum tolerance. Frequently, a pair of ring gauges are inserted in a single steel plate for convenience and act as "go" or "no go" gauges. Ring gauges have the disadvantage of accepting ground work and tapering if the largest diameter is within tolerance.
A thread ring gauge is used to check male threads. The goring must enter the full length of the threads, and the nogo must not exceed three full turns onto the thread to be acceptable. The nogo thread ring will be identified by a groove cut into the outside diameter. Plug gauges are used to check internal dimensions and are generally go or no go gauges. The average plug gauge is a hardened and precision-ground cylinder about an inch long. The go or nogo set is usually held in a hexagonal holder with the go plug on one end and the nogo plug on the other end. to make it more readily distinguishable. The nogo plug is generally made shorter. The thread plug gauge is designed exactly as the plug gauge, but instead of a smooth cylinder at each end, the ends are threaded.
One end is the go member, and the other end is the nogo member. If the go member enters the female threads, the required length is reached, and the no go does not enter more than three complete revolutions. The threads are deemed acceptable. Dial Indicators Dial indicators are mechanical instruments for measuring distance variations. Most dial indicators amplify a contact point reading by using an internal gear train mechanism.
The vertical or horizontal displacement of a spindle with a removable contact tip is transferred to a dial face. The measurement is identified by the use of an indicating hand. With a wide range of measuring ranges, commonly available indicators have discriminations ranging from the smallest graduations of 0002 inches to zero zero zero one inch wide. The proper dial must be selected for the length measurement and required discrimination. Pneumatic gauges and interferometry Pneumatic Gauges:
There are two general types of pneumatic amplification gauges in use. One type is actuated by varying air pressure, and the other by varying air velocity at constant pressure. Measurements in the pressure type gauge can be read to millionths of an inch depending on the amplification and scale.
Filtered compressed air divides and flows into opposite sections of a differential pressure meter. Any change in pressure caused by the variation in the sizes of the work pieces being measured is detected by the differential pressure metre in the flow type of air gauge. The velocity of air varies directly with the clearance between the gauging head and the surface being measured by interferometry. The greatest possible accuracy and precision are achieved by using light waves as a basis for measurement. A measurement is accomplished by the interaction of light waves that are 180 degrees out of phase.
This phenomenon is known as interference. Interference occurs when two or more beams of monochromatic light of the same wavelength are reunited after travelling paths of different lengths. When the light waves pass from a glass medium to an air medium above the surface of an object, a 180-degree phase change takes place.
The reflected light from the test object's surface interferes with and cancels out the incident lightwaves. Irregularities are evidenced by alternate dark and light bands. Laser-designed gauging and CMM-laser-designed gauging—the use of lasers has been prevalent when the intent of inspection is a very accurate noncontact measurement.
The laser beam is transmitted from one side of the gauge to a receiver on the opposite side of the gauge. Measurement takes place when the beam is broken by an object, and the receiver denotes the dimension of the interference to the laser beam. The laser has many uses in gaging, automated inspection, fixed gaging, and laser micrometres, just to name a few examples of the many uses of the laser. Coordinate Measuring Machines Coordinate measuring machines are used to verify workpiece dimensions using computer-controlled measurements, which are taken on three mutually perpendicular axes. Workpieces are placed on a surface plate, and a probe is manoeuvred to various contact points to send an electronic signal back to the computer that is recording the measurements.
CMMS can be driven by a computer to measure complex workpieces and perform automated inspection of complex shapes. Nondestructive Testing NDT and evaluation nondestructive testing (NDT) and nondestructive evaluation NDE techniques evaluate material properties without impairing the future usefulness of the items being tested.
Today, there is a large range of NDT methods available, including ultrasonic radiography, fluoroscopy, microwave, magnetic, particle, liquid, penetrant, eddy, current, and holography. The advantages of NDT techniques include the use of automation, 100% product testing, and a guarantee of internal soundness. However, some NDT results, like X-ray films or ultrasonic echo wave inspection, are open to interpretation and demand considerable skill on the part of the examiner.
Visual Inspection One of the most frequent inspection operations is the visual examination of products, parts, and materials. The color, texture, and appearance of a product give valuable information if inspected by an alert observer. Lighting and inspector comfort are important factors in visual inspection. In this examination, the human eye is frequently assisted by magnifying lenses or other instrumentation. This technique is sometimes called "scanning inspection."
10. Process Capability - Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic testing, application-capable analysis, and vibration frequency vibratiomaterials are all examples of important nondestructive methods. ive testing technique Ultrasonic waves are produced in a transducer and propagated through material flaws. The WA defects' waves strike any defects present and are reflected back to the receiving unit, which spikes them into the asp screen. blip on the screen. Thickness has also been measured using ultrasonic inspection.ensional thickness. Difficuinterference is a useful application of hollow in-spec casings and hollow wall casings where much would be measured. Part interference. The ultrasonic testing technology, sonar, is similar to sonar.
Transients, alternately alternates, and regularly spaced refractions make up sonic energy. For non-testing purposes, audible human sound is in the 20-200 Hz range. The vibration range is MHz (200,000 to 25 MHz), where 1 Hz is one cycle per second. MagnetiMagneticle Magnetic piece testing during inspection is a nondestructive method of detecting the presence of many voids in ferromagnetic materials like metals or alloys.
This technology is used to detect surface and subsurface materials in any magnetized material. The first step in testing is to magnetize a heavy part with a high amperage, low current, or electri-current. The surface of the test part is then covered with fine-scale parts. These particles will align the magnetic field and either concentrate or leave the playful lines magnetic flux lines part. The tesfor particle and magnet concentrations indicate that they are present. Magnetic lines of force can be introduced into a longitudinal inside coil via three methods: linear magnetization, circular magnetization, and linear magnetization using an internal conductor. internal conductor.
The orientation of the selected configuration is the selected configuration. To create discontinuities, the effects of incurrent, Altheas, amagnetisent, or AC manslayer on the surface layer are used. ce discontinuities. Direct current, which has a more uniform field intensity than indirect current, is more sensitive to local defects. Subsurface defects. Wet or dry organic particles are classified into two types based on their application. Arraying agent use Testing with Penetrant Visual inspection is a quick way to test liquid peroxide. Surface defects are visible in both ferrous materials. It is suitable for nonporous metallurgies. Metallic materials. Tender materials have been shown in tests to enter material cysts as large as 30 atheroma’s. Die fluorescent penetrant-luminescent penetrant inspection is so small that no surface penetration is possible.
The agent's ability to penetrate a surface defect and the contrast developer's ability to contrast that attraction are two factors that contribute to the success of liquid penetrant inspection. Falselyry attraction. False accusations can sometimes lead to misinspection. Remove an inspector. Irregular surfactant removal could be illegal. Penetrant sent laws. successful in not having defects. internal defects. Every current examination Eddy currents are caused by electrons in a field and involve delectrons.ctromagnetic field. Eddy interaction of an eddy current with a test object is required for nondestructive testing applications. This is accomplished by eddying the flow of eddy currents in a materially identical conductivity character piece to the test piece. By passing an alternating coil through a coil near the surface of the test object, the eddy currents in a test piece that may have defects can be compared to the eddy currents in a test object that does not have defects. Eddy currents will flow in any part of the conductor by any means. The secondary electromagnetism produced by the induced flow of electrons opposes the primary field produced by the probe coil.
Radiographic meaningless ages, on the other hand, are meaningless and unused. Standards are used. A standard application may be one application or another. one thing for another Neutron Radiograph Neutagraphy is a relatively new radiographic technique with practical applications. A neutron is a small charged particle created by beryllium or other elements.by alpha particles. Neutrons move through space and matter density. Effects of density Electrons interact with electrons when xan objects pass through an object. As a result of the high electron density, a maelstrom is impenetrable. In contrast to electrons, N rays scatter or absorb atomic particles in the atomic nucleus. Metal x-rays are x-ray opaque and n-ray transparent. Materials containing boron, hydrogen, or boron, such as plastics, rubber fluids tics, and many fluorinated NRAS, on the other hand, are opaque to NRAS. Neutrons to perform neutron radii are relatively simple. The object neutron was beamed into a neutron beam detector, which also served as an image detector. Related Techniques developments in new radiographic field testing. destructive testing. Several common recent a fluoroscopies: Gamma-emission fluoroscopy In inspection, gamma radix-ray, phi, TBX, revised X-ray, or TBX, microwave test. Force measurement techniques A brief explanation of force measurement is provided below. Tensile Strength Test Tensile strength is the ability of a material to be pulled and withstand being pulled.by tensile stress. Tensile testing is done by applying an axial force and gradually increasing the tension until the material breaks. The tension was measured using a tensilesometer. The examined curve could be an ana-yzedusicurve. Shear strength is defined as the ability to withstand a sliding-pass type of action when parallel but slightly off-axis forces are applied. Shears can be used in either compression or combination.n.Compression test. forces produced by forces acting on each other The compression test is also called the tensile test. The specimen is a machine, and testing is used. A load is applied and recorded. The data can be used to estimate recostress-straint information.
stability? What is the difference between attribute and discrete capability? Which are the different monitoring techniques? Summary Measure Phase In the definition phase, you learned about the different process definitions. What are six-sigma statistics? How do we perform measurement system analysis? How do we calculate process capability?
1. Pattern of Variation
In this video, we will discuss the analysis phase. Examine the Overview and Objectives of the Phase By the end of this phase, you'll be able to explain the different patterns of variation. Describe inferential statistics. illustrate hypothesis testing. perform the different hypothesis tests for normal data. perform the different hypothesis tests for non-normal data.
Variation Pattern Variation Pattern session overview and objectives By the end of this session, you'll be able to explain multivariate and discuss different classes of distribution. Multivaria multivaria In statistical process control, one tracks variables like pressure, temperature, or PH by taking measurements at certain intervals. The underlying assumption is that the variables will have approximately one representative value when measured frequently. This is not the case. The temperature in the cross section of a furnace will vary, and the thickness of a part may also vary depending on where each measurement is taken.
Often, the variation is within the piece, and the source of the variation varies from piece to piece and from time to time. The multivariate chart is a very useful tool for analysing all three types of variation. Multivariate charts are used to investigate the stability or consistency of a process. The chart consists of a series of vertical lines or other appropriate schematics along a time scale. The length of each line or schematic shape represents the range of values found in each sample set. Multivariate sampling plan design procedure Select the process and the characteristic to be investigated. Select the sample size and time frequency. Set up a tabulation sheet to record the time and values from each sample set.
Plot the multivariate chart on graph paper with time along the horizontal scale and the measured values on the vertical scale. Join the observed values with appropriate dotted lines. Analyze the chart for variation both within the sample set from sample to sample and over time. It may be necessary to conduct additional studies to concentrate on the area or areas of apparent maximum variation. After process improvements, it will be necessary to repeat the multivariate study to confirm the results. Multivariate Analysis Tools Multivariate analysis is concerned with two or more dependent variables (y one, y two) being simultaneously considered for multiple independent variables (x one, x two, etc.).
Recent advances in computer software and hardware have made it possible to solve more problems using multivariate analysis. Some of the software programmes available to solve multivariate problems include SPSS, SAS, and Minitab. Multivariate analysis has found wide usage in the social sciences, psychology, and educational fields. Applications for multivariate analysis can also be found in the engineering, technology, and scientific disciplines. We will learn the highlights of the following multivariate concepts or techniques. discriminate FunctionAnalysis Multivariate Analysis Discriminate Function Analysis DiscriminateFunction Analysis If one has a sample with known groups, discriminant analysis can be used to classify the observations or attributes into two or more groups. Discriminant analysis can be used as either a predictive or a descriptive tool. The decisions could involve medical care, college success attributes, car loan creditworthiness, or the previous economic development issues.
Discriminant analysis can be used as a follow-up to the use of Minova. Again, linear combinations of predictors or groups are provided by the researcher. The possible number of linear combinations that discriminate functions for a study would be the smaller of the number of groups, one, or the number of variables. Some assumptions in discriminant analysis are that the variables are multivariately normally distributed, the population variances and covariances among the dependent variables are the same, and the samples within the variables are randomly obtained and exhibit independence of scores from the other samples. Classes of Distributions Normal binomial, waisson, chisquare, T, and F distributions are examples of commonly used distributions.
The normal distribution has numerous applications when it is equally likely that readings will fall above or below the average. When a sample of several random measurements is averaged, the distribution of such repeated sample averages tends to be normally distributed, regardless of the distribution of the measurements being averaged. Binomial distribution When the population is large (N > 50) and the sample size is small in comparison to the population, it is used to model discrete data. Replacement approximation to hypergeometric distribution is recommended when the sample size is less than 10% of N and n is less than one tenth of N. used to model situations with two possible outcomes.
Fossil distribution used to model discrete data. used to model rates such as rabbits per acre, defects per unit, or arrivals per hour. can be an approximation to the binomial distribution when P is equal to or less than 110 and the sample size is fairly large. used as a distribution for defect counts closely related to the exponential distribution. The G square distribution is not used to model physical phenomena such as failure time. used to make decisions and construct confidence intervals. This distribution is a special case of the gamma distribution. With a failure rate of two and degrees of freedom equal to two, divided by the number of degrees of freedom for the corresponding G squared distribution, this is considered a sampling distribution.
The F distribution is not used to model physical phenomena such as failure time, etc. used to make decisions and construct confidence intervals. used extensively to test for equality of variances in two normal populations. This is considered a sampling distribution. Student's distribution is formed by combining standard normal random variables with a chi-square random variable equivalent to an F distribution with one and two degrees of freedom.
Commonly used for hypothesis testing and constructing confidence intervals, they are used in place of normal distributions when the standard deviation is unknown. If the sample size is large, N is greater than 100, the error in the estimated standard deviation is small, and the t distribution is approximately normal. Summary Pattern of variation In this session, you learned about multivariate and different classes of distribution.
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