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OSPF Advance

1. OSPF Network Types

The following topic in this section will be about OSPF network types and how OSPF behaves in different types of networks. Okay? So basically, first we'll try to see the different types of networks here. As a result, the behaviour of OSPF will typically vary depending on the type of network. like we have something called point-to-point interfaces. These point-to-point interfaces are simply when you connect your routers via a serial interface and use PPP or HDR encapsulations, similar to the common lease line connections that we use nowadays, most commonly Ethernet connections. However, if you connect to a sealed interface automatically, OSPF will detect that link as a point of point link, also known as a pointer point because we only have one point connecting to another point.

So using this link, we cannot connect multiple routers. So basically, we are just connecting two routers in general here. But most of the traditional networks will be using Ethernet. Ethernet is something we'll be using. Like Ethernet, which was initially used only on land but gradually spread to the Internet, As an example, we now have various types of van connections that come with Ethernet. So, if you connect your router via any kind of Ethernet interface, such as a 0 by 0 or a 0 by 0 interface, those networks will almost certainly fall under the category of broadcast networks. Now we call them "broadcast networks," and technically we call them "BMA broadcast multiaccess networks," because in most of the internet networks, for example, I have different sites in different locations.

So we'll be connecting to a service for infrastructure because I'm not going to lay my own cable to provide the connectivity. The connectivity is something provided by the service portal, right? So the service part is going to provide connectivity to the backbone Ethernet networks. So there are different types of internet conditions offered by the service portal. We are not getting into those things. And the service order will allow you to connect your own sites to his existing infrastructure. So that means we'll be connecting something like this to the nearest possible switch here. So this is more like a broadcast network, like a switch network provided by the service portal. And, technically, this is how they physically connect. But when we represent this ethnological terminology, we generally say that we do have these sites in different locations, and they all connect to one broadcast network. So we call this a BM network. So physically, this is how they connect. But when we logically represent them, we represent them as this kind of network. So we call them "BMnetworks," or broadcast multi-access networks.

So, in this type of network, the OSPF behaviour will be different because there are BRB elections; we'll discuss why there is a Dr Media election later. Again and again, there is one more kind of network type for NBM. Probably something outside the scope of this paper. We used to have framed ATM networks, depending on the type of van technology. I think these networks are no longer used in today's production networks. You may notice a friendly bit, but remember that if you use other types of networks, such as DMVPN, which is commonly used nowadays, or any other type of VPN network, they fall under NBM networks. Despite the fact that there is a distinction, the concept remains the same. If you see this as your sample VMA network in the case of an NDMA network as well, the same thing happens. We do have our own sites on different locations, and we are contacting the service portal.

The service provider has its own infrastructure, and over that infrastructure, the service portal will allow you to connect, and the service order already has some pre-existing devices. like in this case. Mostly, it will be some routers, frameless switches, or routers. It depends on what technology we use. Now, if you try to see both of them at the same time, such as this is your BMA broadcast multi-axis now multi-axis why? because this is your backbone network. Now, this network backbone provided by the service portal is connecting multiple access points. There is nothing but multiple devices for the same customer. Also, there is a different customer as well. So here we are, just seeing things from one customer's point of view. But like this, you have every customer connected. And of course, the responder will make sure that the traffic is separated. Now, in this kind of network, we call this a BMA because the broadcast, when this device sends a broadcast request like an OSP of "hello" or any broadcast, as these are mostly your two devices, like switches, there is a possibility that the broadcast will go from here to here.

So the service portal will allow the broadcast package to go over this network. However, in the case of the NBM network, when we talk about NBM now, the broadcast messages are simply OSP hollow messages that will not be sent from here to here. So if you want to send, you need to change networks to either point-to-point or broadcast. There are some options here, or you can switch from multipoint to multipoint depending on your needs; these are the different network types, and the behaviour of OSPF will differ in each. That's what we are trying to see in this section here. These are three network types, as I said, so here we'll start with first understanding the BM networks and then also try to get into the point-to-point networks and how they exactly behave. As previously stated, OSPF employs Ethernet ethernet types by default. Generally, by default, it uses broadcast networks.

Like you can see here, when OSPF uses it by default, all your different interfaces will be treated as BM networks. We can verify that by using the Show IP OS interface. So when we say show IP interface, you can see the network type is broadcast if it is your zero by zero interface, which is your Ethernet. And when you're connecting any serial link, the default network type will be treated as point-to-point. As a result, OSP switches network types by default based on the type of interface we use. But again, we can change the network types depending on.

2. OSPF Broadcast Types - DR – BDR

So the first thing we'll try to do is get into the OSP of broadcast networks. So let's first see the broadcast networks and what the challenges are. Again, when I say "broadcast network," you need to understand that we'll be using some kind of VM network, which means there is a broadcast network that is provided by the service portal. But when we logically represent, we just say, "Okay, all these routers are connecting to each other." So generally, we say that these are all connected to each other here. As a result, they are all connected to the same network. One broadcast network where you have multi-access—multiple devices connecting to one backbone network—and where there is a possibility of broadcast So when this router sends an update to this router, it will basically go to the switch network and may be broadcast to each and every router because here, every router is a neighbour of every other router. So one of the problems with the OSPF broadcast network is that all your Ethernet interfaces will be treated as broadcast networks. So we assume all our Ethernet interfaces are connected here to a network backbone, or we search for a backbone network. So in the case of BMAnetworks, it will face two different challenges. The first challenge is that we have multiple adjacencies. So, when we configure OSPF on this router, and I go to verify, show IP OSPF neighbor. Because they are all connected to one centralised network, this router will now have multiple neighbors, which means that every router is a neighbour of every other router. As an example, suppose I have four computers and I connect these four computers to a centralised backbone switch.

So generally, we say that even though physically there is no direct connection between these computers, we say that the computers are logically connected to each other so we can send and receive information directly between them, and of course there is a centralised backbone switch that provides the connectivity. So, similarly, the router is directly connecting to each and every router, and if you go and verify share IPOs with your neighbor, you should see that router B will be establishing neighbourhood with all these routers in the same broadcast domain, assuming it is a point of contact link. So I'm assuming this is my crack here. So we do have multiple adjustments, which means every router will be a neighbour of every other router within the same broadcast domain.

The second issue is that, as a result of this behavior, there is a chance that the LLC will cause the advertisements to be multiplied, such as when the router A sends an update to the router B. In this example, now that the router A is sending an update to router B, as B is establishing a neighbourhood with every other router, it is going to send out the neighbourhood or send out the update to each and every other router. Let me try to demonstrate this here.

So the router B receives an update. Now, the B says, "I got an update." I'm going to pass on this information to all my neighbors. So everyone here is my neighbour because we are all on the same broadcast domain. Now, once the router B is used, the router B says, "I got an update from the router B, and my job is to update each and every other router." which means the router D says, "Okay, I'm going to pass on this update to every other router, or every other neighbor." And likewise, the router C says, "I got an update; I'm going to pass on this information." I got an update from B and D. Of course, both sides Assume from the deal that it is used and then says, "I'm going to pass this update on to every other neighbor." So, as you can see, the update will be repeated, and the same process will be repeated.

So BBL again says, "Okay, I got a new update from C." I'm going to make an update to Def. And like that, that will create updated Elsa loops. So this is one type of issue you may encounter as a result of the differences, because every router is a neighbour of every other router, which means the LSS will flood your network, especially in this broadcast. Now, to overcome this anyway, this will not occur, of course, but there is a solution for this. To address this issue, OSPA broadcast networks have implemented PDR-style elections. Now, Dr stands for designated router, and BDR stands for backup designated router. So we have loop prevention mechanisms like the Dr and PDR mechanisms, which we just discussed, to prevent those loops. So, how will it do so outside of this broadcast network? In this example, we have these fire routers that are part of one BM network and one broadcast network, so they will decide who will want which router as a Dr and VDR in this router.

So we'll see the process later. Assume that in my network, router D is configured as a Dr and router E is configured as a BDR, or backup. Now, this works something like this. So, if you receive any updates, just like if you take an example, I'm the trainer, and we do have some participants, such as you who are here attending the sessions. So here in our case, I will be the So if you have any updates, normally we are all neighbors, we all know each other, and we all talk to each other. But at the same time, if there is any kind of update, probably what we are doing is not updating everyone. So what you'll do is just pass on this information to the doctor and the trainer here. And the trainer will take the responsibility, of course, to pass on this information to each and every other router. This means that all information will be transmitted only through Dr. So this way, we can remain in the loops, and there will be no exchange between other routers.

You are just neighbors, but you don't exchange any information between you. The same rule applies here as well. So whenever any router receives an update, it will send the update to the DR and, of course, to PDR as well. And the doctor will take up the responsibility of informing or sending this update back to every other router. The BDR will not do anything. PDR is just an ideal device. So whenever the Dr. goes down, it will take up the role of the Dr.

So, just like a router, when you receive an update, you simply forward it to Drand the BDR, and Dr will take responsibility for forwarding it to the remaining routers. That is, routers other than Dr. BDR are referred to as Dr. Others. So in this process now, on the other end of the routers, they are only neighbors, and they don't exchange any updates directly. And if there is any exchange of updates, it should go via PR. This is how the loops will be avoided. So the DRBD election occurs during the OSPF neighbourhood in general, when we discussed the different states. So basically, it occurs between the two ways and the start stage, probably in between those processes.

So it will do that process at that point in time only if it identifies the network type as a broadcast network. And again, as I said, all the neighbourhoods will receive full adjustments with DR and PDR only. That means the other router and the doctor will have full seven-stage existences. But the fact that one and the other will only go up to the two-way stage means they don't exchange.

So there is no extra exchange stage, loading stage, or full stage between these two doctors. Because the exchange takes place primarily between two neighbors. If it is Y ordr, this is the method it will use to collect data. So this is like an automated process. We can still decide by changing the priority values. We'll talk about that. But suppose the Dr goes down; this could be due to the router or the interface going down, or it could be due to a problem with the Dr router. Now in that scenario, it will automatically select the other router; the backup will become the Dr, and any other router will become the Dr and BDR, and the same process happens.

3. DR- BDR Elections

The following question is, "Okay, the Drpdelections are fine, but what conditions will be present in order to decide the Drpdl?" So by default, they decide based on the priority value. So every interface has something called a priority value, and the default priority value will be one; whichever device has the highest priority value will become the Dr, and the router with the second-highest priority value will become the PDR. So in our example, let's take this as an example of your topology, and assume these are the priority values we have configured, and in this example, 200 is the highest. So that particular router D will become the Dr, and the next highest is 100.

So that will become the BDR to be compared with other values like ten, one, etc. So the priority value is used to make the default selection, and any router that is not a Dr BDRas I mentioned will become the TR order. So technically, we call them the truth. And what if there is a tie in the priority value? There is a possibility that all the routers may have the same priority value. Because if you don't make any changes, the default priority value will be one, which means if you go with the default values, there will be a tie in the priority value. And if there is a tie in the priority value, the tie breaker will be the router ID.

So the router will choose and say, okay, whichever router has the highest router ID and the highest router, in terms of numbers, you have to see the first portion; if the first portion is the same, see the second portion; if the second portion is the same, see the third or else the fourth portion. So you cannot have the same router ID on two routers in the OSPF domain. Like in this example, I'm just using this router ID, like 45623; so which is the highest? Six is the highest. So the router F will become the Dr because it has the highest priority value, and the next highest is this one. So that will become the PDM. So there is no time because you cannot use two routers with the same router ID. That has to be unique.

So this is how the elections are done. So the Drpd elections are done based on the priority value, and if there is a time when the priority value is, of course, the highest value, if there's a time when the priority value is, it will automatically decide based on the route, right? So we can change the priority values, and we'll see that in the configuration section, probably in more detail, like we can change the priority values depending on the requirement, but assuming we stick with the default values, that will already be the case. And for the next thing, let's quickly see one more option.

We'll look into a few other possibilities before proceeding with the verification. Now, if the router has a priority of zero, it will never become a Dr or BDR, as in some networks, and you may want a specific router to never become a Dr, such as if this is my head office and I always want this router to be the Dr and other routers to be others. They should never become a TR, but we can go ahead and change the priority values to zeros.

When it says "0," it means it will never become a Dr. or BDR, which means it is not eligible to do the elections. So, in some scenarios, you just want the routers to always be others, and they should never play Dr. In that scenario, you can just change them to zeros, like small branch offices; you don't want them to become Drs in any case because of the small routers. The Drpd elections are now also non-premu. In this example, the nonprofit means that router A becomes a Dr and router B becomes a PDF.

In my example, there are now only a few routers left, such as CD EF, but there are others, say, and for some reason the router A interface goes down, perhaps the interface goes down or the router is rebooted, or the router is done. So, in those scenarios, this B router will automatically become the Dr, correct? The backup becomes the Dr, and any router in this group—in this case, the B becomes a Dr, the C becomes a BDR, and the A returns—becomes the Dr. Now A is back again.

So maybe you can assume that the router was reloaded due to some reason, so it is back and has a better priority value or a better router ID. However, A will only play the role of others. As a result, it will not become a Dr. right away. So we call this non-preemption, the opposite of STP. If you're familiar with the STP process, you'll notice that it's preemptive, which means that if the root bridge goes down and then reappears, that will become the root bridge. But it's not like that; it's the polar opposite of that. If the A returns, A must wait for it to roll.

Wait for it, which means that if the B also falls, the C will become the Dr, and the A will become the PDR because it is in the line. As a result, it will most likely have to wait for the process. So that is non-premium behavior. So this is the default. When a better router enters the subnet, no permission of the existing DRBD occurs, which means that if you add a new router with a higher outrage or a higher priority value, it will not take over the role of the existing DR unless both the existing Dr and the PDR router fail.

Okay? So if you want to force it, there is an option, such as using clear IPOs to process, which we will be using in our labs. Because if you want to force it, you can reset all the routers, tell them to clear the process, and do the reelection again. So you can do that. That is like forcing the router to do the reelection process or the complete process, disconnect the neighbors, and connect them again. And one more thing. In the OSPF networks, as I discussed already, the neighbour relationship between the DR and the other will reach full maturity.

All the seven stages, as we know them, are the downstage initialised stage, the two-way stage, the start stage, the exchange stage, the loading stage, and the full stage. As a result, the neighbour process between these two neighbours will be completed. However, the neighbour relationship between the other and the other will be only two-way, which means they will go from the initialised stage where they stand to the finalised stage where they stand.

And here we have the hollow. And in the two-way stage, they become neighbors, and there is no excitable start; there is no exchange, loading, or full stage between these two routers. Now, the reason is simple: other people cannot send an update to other people directly. So there's no point in going on this date. So that's the reason.

When you verify the neighbour ship, you may see it, but it will only show you two-way or full-stage depending on the type of the neighbor. Again. And one more thing: like the Dr. and the others, there are two different multicast addresses used here. When someone sends an update to the doctor, they will use 224 characters. So that is a multicast address used by others to reach the Dr, which means all the Dr routers will listen on 2240 six. And when the Dr was up, the same thing happened: when the Dr sends an update to any other router, it will send on 2240 flights.


The next thing we'll try to do is verify the OSPO broadcast network behaviour in this example here. We'll be employing four routers in our endeavor. Here, on router 1234, and with these routers again, we are connecting to a backbone networkswitch here in my GNS 3. And then we'll quickly configure the routers in area zero, and we'll assign some IP addresses. And then we'll configure some OSPF and verify the behaviour here. So to verify this behaviour again, we will be using some kind of topology here, using the same four routers, or any four routers you choose, and trying to connect all the routers to the backbone switch, assuming that this is the backbone that is provided by the service here. So likewise, I'm connecting all my ethernet interfaces to essentialize a switch that is simulating my service for our backbone network. So let's do the same thing for all the remaining routers, and likewise here as well. So once we do this, the next thing is I'll try to go and assign the IP addressing as per this. So it's a simple IP address. Because they are all part of the same broadcast network, I'll be using terms like "ten dots," "110 dots," "210 dots," and "ten dots." So you need to have the same network. Of course, opposite interfaces have to be on the same subnet.

So let's quickly console them and try to verify the behavior. So this is my router 1, and then we'll go to routers 2, 3, and 4 as well. So these are new routers. So probably what I'll do is try to assign the IP addresses and configure the OSP as per my topology here. So this is my topology. So let's quickly configure the IP addressing as well. So the first thing I will do is configure the OSPO using the 10-dot network and area zero. That's the first thing. And, of course, the interface that I'm connecting is f zero by zero, and I'm attempting to assign the IP address, the slash 24 submar, or you can use eight, whatever the value, and I'm using motion on command to update the interface. So try to copy and paste this configuration here because the same configuration applies to all the remaining routers; the only difference is that the IP address will change. So I'm going to use this on the router two, on the router two here, and then on the router three. On the router 3, I need to change the IP address to this one, and then let's go ahead and configure this year on the router 3 as well as on the router 4 as well. So I'm not making any changes.

So I'm just going with the default configurations here. With the default IP, you can have more than one interface, but in my case, there's just one interface here. I think that is sufficient. So we don't need to create any loopbacks or other interfaces. If you want, you can just go ahead and create. Now, what I should see is that it says "unable to get the router." And that's the problem here. I just need to reconfigure the OSP for you. Let me just say that because there was no IP address, it couldn't choose a route to ride. That's the issue over there because, as you may recall, we discussed the routerity concepts, and it automatically selects any one interface. If there is no manual router, it will select the loopback interface or the physical interface. So I think now it's done. So you can see the neighbour ship that has been established between the router and, if verified, show IPOs your neighbor.

If you recall, when you connect from one broadcast network to a service border, this connection, like router one, is generally establishing a neighbour ship with routers two, three, and four. So these are the IPS. Of course, these are outright as well. and you can see the priority values here. These are the default priority values that I did not change. So the default will be one, and the neighbour is here. And I believe the neighbourly relationship has been fully established here. So if I say "Show," I close your neighbor, and you can see there are some neighbours that are in the "two ways" state and some neighbours that are pulled. Now, as for this example, if you verify my example, this neighbour is Dr. You can see the message here indicating that router four is the Dr, router three is a PDR, and router two is the other Dr, as per the outputs.

And, once again, this is your other router, and the neighbourhood between the other and the Dr will be full, as will the neighbourhood between the other and the VDR, and the neighbourhood between the other and the other will be at a certain stage based on what we talked about. And the remaining outputs are the same as the timer, the interface, and the actual interface IP address. So I did not do anything here. So if you verify, of course I don't see any routes because I don't have any routes here to verify. And there are some other verifications. As an example, we can say "show IP OSPF interface." If I specifically say interface f zero by zero, which I'm using here, you can say this is my Ethernet interface, and this interface's network type is a broadcast. If you recall from the basics, all Internet interfaces will be treated as broadcasts, with the cost and other values we discussed included.

The router ID automatically selects the highest IP address here; what is the state? The state is a Dr. Now, the current state of this router is "other" and the priority value of this router is "one." So who is your TR? Again, you can see some other information. Like in my example, the router pulls a Dr. Why, because these are the router settings based on the router, and this is the highest router setting that automatically selects this router as a Dr. So we can verify these options by using ShowIP OS neighbour again, or you can also specifically use the ShowIPOs web interface, where you can see the states and the same outputs here. So we did not do anything. It's a kind of basic verification. The next step is to see if I want to decide or change any specific router to become Dr. Like in this example, let's say I want this router. Maybe these two routers are my small branch office routers. And this is my main office router.

And I'd like this router to take on the role of "Dr," because "Dr" indicates that it's doing extra work, which means the router should be a little higher up the list. In my scenario, I want this router to be the Dr, and router two to be the BDR, because I assume these are the routers or my hind routers in my network, and they have some additional processing capabilities, probably big high-end routers or speed routers. And the other router should be Dr. Of course, this is different from that. At the same time, I don't want this router to become a Dr, which means I don't want the router force to become a Dr. To do that, we can simply change the priority value to zero.

Now, zero means, if you remember what I said, it will never become a Dr. beta; it will always remain in the other state. Now, to do that, we simply need to go to the interface and change the priority values. In my case, the zero by zero represents my connected interface. So we'll go to that interface and change the priority values. So the priority values we can use are any number from 0 to 255, with the highest being always preferred.

And in my example, I want the router to take up the role of the Dr. So I'm changing the priority value to 255, the highest value. And I want router 2 to serve as the backup router. So I'm changing the priority value here to 254, which is going to become the BDR. I'm not going to change anything on router 3 because I'm just going to leave it alone, but on router 4, I want this router to never become the Dr or the PDR, so I'm going to set the priority to zero.

So, how do we go about doing that? Simple command Iposp of priority, and then cue the priority value. And again, if you remember, let's quickly do one more thing. I'll go to the router. I'll go to my topology. In my example, I want the router to take up the rollout. So I'm going to change the priority value to these values. And the priority value I'm going to change it to zero on the router four.So let's go to the interface to which it connects, and then we have to say IPOspure priority, anything from zero to 55.

So I'm giving the highest value on the router one, and on the router two, I'm going to give the priority value of 254, the next highest. And on router 4, I'm going to change the priority value to zero as a permanent requirement; I'm changing it for verifications. So if you go and verify the states, if you search for IP or neighbour here, you can see the states again; the states may change, but again, one more thing you need to do is make sure that we also use the clear IPOs to process commands, because by default, these elections are nonprempt.

That is, whenever you make any changes, everything is decided because the neighbour ship has already been established and Dr. Biddy has been decided. So whenever you make any changes to values or any specific values, you need to make sure that you also clear the process. Of course, you must reload the router otherwise. But basically, going to every router and explaining the process is something that's recommended.

That's what we'll try to do here, IPO, with your process to ensure that this process is going to restart the process; we'll do it on each and every route of yours. So let's do it on all of these routers to expedite the reelection process, and then on the router one. Clear the Ipswitch process and reset the process view. I should see the changes now that I've reset the process. Like on the router, if I say "show IPOSP of interface F zero by zero," I'm expecting that the router should be in the Dr state. So it's in a waiting mode because I'm expecting the router to become the Dr on this network because I've just made changes. So, in the meantime, I'll go check the other routers. If I say show IP OSP of interface here, you can see that the state is "other," and router four is now "other." And if you go ahead and verify with show IP OSP of Neighbor in the example, you can see that the router from the routerfour here from the router for the router one is a Drand and that the other routers are the others. Now, it's fine.

5. OSPF Poiint to Point Links

So the next step will be to look at the OSP of point-up and networks, similar to how we looked at the OSP of broadcast networks previously. In the case of broadcast networks, we have a Dr. VDR-type scenario. But, unlike when running any point-to-point interface, "point-to-point" refers to any kind of sealed interface, such as in this example, where I have a router 2 connecting to a serial interface on this site, which is a point-to-point interface.

And I'm connecting one Ethernet interface on the other side, which is my broadcast network. So if you try to see the differences here in the case of point-to-point links, there is no Dr. Beta election here because generally it is a point-to-point link, and there is no kind of broadcast in general in the point-to-point link like when the update is sent on this interface. Of course, the routers will not send back on the same interface. Now there's no possibility of loops. So in Dr. Biddy, there's no point-to-point interface, and there are no Dr. BDR elections in point-to-point networks. So that's the reason. If you look here, you'll notice that this column is empty and doesn't show anything other than the serial interface.

So if there is any serial interface with point-to-point or hidden calculations, it will treat that interface automatically as a pointer point. And if you want to verify, we can use the Show IPost interface. You can verify this network. It demonstrates point for point here. And it only uses one multicast server out of a possible 25 by default. So there are no sixes here. And automatically, OSPF is going to detect this interface type. That means you don't need to manually go and configure that. So if you want to verify, we can just go ahead and connect the link. As an example, I established a connection between router one and router two via a serial link, and I already have this configuration; I configured this on the router side; you can see I have configured an IP address, and then I configured OSPF between router one and router file. Similarly, if you verify the configuration I just did on the router file, the interface is one by zero, the one connecting one and five, and you have configured OSP appearing.

If you go to "Show IP OSP of neighbor," you can see the neighbour ship state; it shows full, but this column is blank, and there's nothing in here about priority. So basically, this column will be blank. In general, if you want to verify, we can use this command: "show IPOs interface." In the silly interface, it is going to show you the network type, which is going to be pointed out, and the state, which will also be pointed out. So there are no Drbiddy elections required in these default sealed interfaces, and OSPF will automatically detect this link and ensure that there is no Dr beer and no kind of loop here, but there are some scenarios where you may want to run point-to-point links over ethernet links. Take, for example, this scenario, where we have a router connected on G zero by zero and another connected on G zero by one, all of which are connected via Ethernet links.

Now, when I connect to an Ethernet link, the router will recognise that these are my broadcast networks and will determine that they are bidding options based on the broadcast networks. However, in some point-to-point connections, such as there are some, again, different, different types of Ethernet connections used, as in most internet connections, such as there is something called Internet Private Wide Service, ELON service. As a result, the majority of these van connections, which are provided over Ethernet, can also be point-to-point. So that means, like I said, when you're connecting multiple sites, like a head office connecting to branch offices, they can all connect to one broadcast domain and be treated as a BM network or use the same broadcast network.

As an example, the router may have a separate broadcast link, most likely a separate link for each and every site, as well as some interfaces or a separate interface for each and every site. Now in this scenario, even though these are separate points on links, as they are using Ethernet, OSPF is going to treat this as a broadcast network, and there will be a DRI-Bidia election process. But, according to some of these links, you don't want Dr. Biddy to be elected. Because there is no point in using the DR option when running an Ethernet link, and if the netting is only a point-to-point, it will add unnecessary convergence and resources. So what I want to do is, even though I'm connecting my Ethernet link, which is the default broadcast in these kinds of networks where you have just an internet link, it is a point-to-point connection, and there is no possibility of Dr. BiDR, meaning there is no point in going with the RBDR.

We can go ahead and manually change the network type to point-to-point. So the default network type will be broadcast for all Ethernet links. But most of the engineers, again, as I said, prefer to use point-to-point links over this kind of network type. So we'll be using point-to-point rather than the default broadcast type. As a result, to reduce unnecessary overhead and the type of convergence. So, we simply say "I post to the network," and if you use the question mark, you'll see the various options. Like in this example, I do have a connection between doctor One and router Two. So I'll change this link between one and two to "point to point." So let me just go over router one and router two's neighbour IPOs; router one is establishing neighbourhood with two links. One is on the serial link, which is the default point-to-point. And this is a broadcast network, and that's the reason you have a DRM option.

And if you want to verify, we can also verify with this option for the IPOSP of the interface. You can see the network type is broadcast. So what I want to do is change the network type to point-to Point. So, how do we go about doing that? We simply say "interface IPOs network," and there are various network options. Even has default broadcasting. But here I want to change this to point-to Point. Now, one more thing you need to keep in mind Whenever you change the network type on one side and the opposite side, you also must match; if the network type mismatches, then the neighbourhood will be impacted. So at the time of troubleshooting, we need to keep this in mind. So make sure that the network type also matches on both sites for the Oscar neighbours to come up or for the Oscar to work properly. In my case, I'm going to change on the other side. as well as changing the network type to point-to-point here.

When I change the network type to point-to-point, the neighbour ship should appear. You can see on the router that the neighbourhood is up, and there is no more Dr. VDR even though I'm connecting my Ethernet interface here. And if I say, "Show me the IPost interface on the network at zero by zero," it will show you the network point by point. So in some kinds of networks, like, as I said, when you're connecting the point-to-point link over Ethernet, it's always the best practise to change the network type to point-to Point. So these are the two types of point-to-point links. You'll notice that you're using a Seal interface, connecting to routers, using visual information, or any other technology that automatically recognises it as a point-to-point or Ethernet link. Also, we may want to.

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