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Microsoft MTA 98-366 Practice Test Questions and Answers, Microsoft MTA 98-366 Exam Dumps - PrepAway
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Understanding Protocols and Services
1. What to expect in this section
Network services and protocols. Yes. It's time to codify the OSI model. Subnetting DNS DHCP will have you asking, "What do you mean, subnetting?" I don't like it. It's really strange. It's not strange. It's not easy. You will have to learn that. Anyway, if you want to work as a support engineer, I have prepared two lectures for you. A really nice document and a quiz Don't worry. It will be okay. Thank you very much.
2. The OSI Model part 1
MTA networking, fundamental protocols, and services The OSI model We're going to have two sessions and two lectures dedicated to the OSI model. It is a very, very important topic. It's not an easy one. That's why, if you are in a busy place on a train, do not go through this lecture, please. You have to focus and make sure that you understand everything. What is the OSI model? We've got seven layers. I want to start with a quick overview to make sure that you know what we're going to talk about. It makes more sense. We have seven layers, as you can see on the righthand side. I'm not sure if you remember when we talked about switches.
Do you remember when I mentioned we had layer-two switches, layer-three switches, and layer-four switches? And I explained that we would come back to it later on. Here we go: the OSI reference model. It is a set of seven layers. We have seven layers, as you can see. And this model was designed many, many years ago. and we still use it to describe our networks. Okay, seven layers. In this lecture, we're going to talk about the OSI motor in general. and we'll cover the first three layers. application, presentation, and session. Layers seven, six, and five Now, why do we need a motor like that? Is it something like, "Well, we want to make sure you fail your exam"? That's why we are going to add a topic to make sure 50% of people fail the exam tomorrow. Unfortunately, sometimes that is the case. A lot of vendors add strange and complex topics to make sure that you have more things to memorize.
And you believe that a certificate is extremely valuable. That's not the case with the OSI. We really need that. As a support engineer or network engineer, I believe you either work or want to work. That is the first point, which is the most important one. That is something that is really important, important. Every time you start troubleshooting an issue, you should follow a model like that. I would like to give the following example: Let's say someone reports, "Oh my, you know, something is wrong with my laptop." I can't turn it on. You're going to start with something really simple. You're not going to recommend, "Oh, let's replace the system board." Why? No, you just check. Okay. What about your power? Maybe your battery? Is that something like that? And the same applies to the OSI model. We want to start with something really simple and then move up. Of course, point number two is really important as well, because it means, let's say, that you want to buy a new switch. We have covered switches on the routers already. Let's say you want to buy one. You go to, I don't know, let's say eBay, and you don't have to ask, "Oh, do you have a switch with RJ-45 ports?" Or maybe it's just like a proprietary port now. It's not going to happen.
All switches will have RJ-45 ports. You don't have to confirm the size, and you don't have to do that because it is a standard that everybody has to follow. And that's why we can go online and buy a really nice switch. Here we go. We are ready to show the OSI model. At least, I am not sure if you are. I hope you are. Here we go. Seven layers: physical, data link, network, transport session, presentation, and application. In this lecture, we're going to talk about the first three layers. The first are the top layers: application, presentation, and session. These layers are not critical for you as a network engineer. They are. However, it is more important to focus on layers four, three, and two. transport, network, and data link because we start from the top. You have seven applications and one physical. Layers 4, 3, and 2 are the most important.
Of course, we have to understand layers seven, six, and five. Application layer. Let's start with the first one. Every time I teach the OSI model and I ask my students, "Okay, can you give me an example of something that you can find at this application layer?" And people say, "Oh, yes." Firefox. Internet Explorer has an "outlook." and that's not the case. This is a layer that interacts with software applications. And there are a few examples on the right side. It's something that you should understand as an MTA-certified engineer: layer seven is not Firefox. You can name a few protocols and applications like DNS, telnet, DHCP, web services, and things like that. They are layer seven protocols. Now, what about the presentation layer? This is pretty simple. The presentation layer is responsible for three main things: conversion, encryption and decryption, and then compression. Every time you go for a network exam and you find a question about the OSI model, you have to find a keyword, something that will identify what they are talking about. And for layer number six, it is conversion, encryption, and compression. Why is it important? because it allows your network devices—computers, phones, and so on—to recognise a file or something that was sent to you.
There is a different header for an image and for a movie. It's extremely important because you will use Microsoft Word if you want to open a document. And of course you will use, let's say, VLC to play a movie or Paint to open a JPEG file. You will not be able to open, say, a document in Paint. Why? And it's not only the extension; it's also the header. What's inside the presentation layers? Paint will say, "Well, sorry, this is not an image; I can't really open it." And Paint will recognise this as the presentation layer and all OSI layers, because extensions are extremely important to you, not computers. They don't really care. You can name an image MPEG, and you can still open it with Paint. It doesn't really matter as long as everything that is inside is correct. And that is layer six, layer five, and the session layer here. I'm pretty sure you've heard that before. When people say, "Can I open a new FTP session?" Can you open a new Telenet session?
A large group of people, or even a Firefox session, translates to two windows, two connections, and two sessions. Okay? And layer number five is responsible for all these things. It will keep an eye on all these sessions and make sure that everything is okay. And when you connect the server, the server replies, and you want to make sure that it arrives at the correct place. And layer number five, the session layer where you can ask for assistance, will help you do that. It means, for example, that you have two windows open and go to two different places. When they reply, you want to make sure that this message arrives at this place and this message arrives at that place. That is the session layer. A lot of theory, right? Yes, it is already important. It will be even more interesting when we move to layers four, three, and two. In this lecture, I wanted to describe the OSI model. In general. We talked about layers seven, six, and five. Please make sure that you know how to identify these layers. Because Microsoft can ask a question like that. They can ask you to recognise a layer, name a few features, and make sure that you're ready. Our next lesson, our next lecture still the OSI model. Layer four, three, two, and one. Thank you very much.
3. The OSI Model part 2
MTA networking fundamentals Posi Model part two of this lecture: layers four, three, two, and one. Let's start with the transport layer. Just to remind you where we are, we're talking about the transport layer over here. Okay, we have already covered the top three layers, top layers. Now we are over here at the transport layer. If you wanted to define the transport layer, you would say that it is in charge of yes. delivering a message. I like to give the following example, going back to that picture: Layer four is like a car. Layer three is like a driver. You need a car to get to Tesco, and you need a driver to get there.
Okay? A driver without a car While you will not get to Tesco You can walk, but, oh, come on. It's like 500 yards. You will not do that. It could kill you. That's too far. You need a car. And of course, cars can't drive themselves yet. However, according to Google, they're very close. To make it happen, you need a driver. Layer three is the driver. car is layer four. So the transport layer is responsible for delivering messages. We've got two main protocols that can make it happen. It uses TCP and UDP. TCP and UDP. TCP is reliable. It means that when we are going to set up a connection, make sure that the other side is ready to talk to us. Okay? That is the first point. It is reliable.
We want to double-check that everything has arrived. What I mean by that is that you want to send an email. You are going to use TCP because you said, "I want to arrive at your place tomorrow." 05:00 p.m.. You want to make sure that Mike receives your message. And it says 05:00 p.m., not 07:00 p.m. or anything like that. You want to make sure it's 5:00 p.m. That's why it has to be reliable. Okay. And some other features that you can read; some of them are beyond MTA. If you want to learn a little more, of course you can go for it. The best one, in my opinion, is CCNA. You will talk about all these things in detail.
It will cover segments and what's inside. Here is a very good explanation of what TCP and UDP are. I decided to put a slide like that anyway, so you can see that well. If I were you, I would memorise that anyway. UDP, on the other hand, is connectionless. Unfortunately, it does not check if something has arrived. Okay, it will try. Okay, I will try my best. However, I don't have a way to verify, and I'm really limited. But what's the advantage here? And that's the problem with TCP. It takes time. That's why we use UDP for things like voice, voice over IP, streaming videos, DNS, and TFTP, especially voice over IP and videos. These are really good examples because you don't want anything like that.
Let's say you're watching a movie, OK? And then one small area, let's say this one over here, has not arrived yet. What will your PC do? Or what would it do if we used TCP? Your PC would say, "Well, stop, stop; you're not allowed to watch that movie anymore." What I have to do is ask a server to resend that small area. You don't want to do that. You want to keep watching your movie. That's why you're okay. When something goes black for one millisecond, you don't really care. You want to keep watching. The same applies to voice over IP. If you're on the phone with somebody, you don't want to hear, "Hi, Mama." Mike, because the first two letters didn't arrive, you don't want that, because that's what you would have if we used TCP for protocols and applications like that. I have some bad news for you. Yes, it is time to memorise a few things. If I were Microsoft, I would include at least two questions. I can't tell you if you'll see it, but I can tell you it's a crucial slide for your exam and an IT interview.
A lot of questions What is a port number? A port number allows you to identify something—in this case, an application—that you want to get. Why is it important? Imagine that you are over here and you want to go to Google. That is a Google server. To keep things simple, let's say Google Server only has one IP address, which is the destination IP address. And you go there, okay?
You go there, and Google says, "OK, what do you want from me?" And this message says, "Well, I want to get something." and Google says OK. Can you be more specific than that, please? I have some emails for you. I can show you a website; maybe I am an FTP server. It means I can download some files and so on. You can have a lot of services running. That's why you should say, "Well, I want you to do that port 80," and Google will respond, "Oh, I know you on the website, mate." That's good. I can give it to you, okay? That's why port numbers are so important. And this is a list for you to be memorized. I'm pretty sure you understand.
You can download files by browsing the Internet. Telnet allows you to manage, for instance, network devices. an email protocol, a secure connection to a website RDP (remote desktop protocol) allows you to connect to a server. We're going to talk about domain name services (DNS). It allows you to translate a name into an IP address. Pptpvpn I put it here because it is a really popular VPN.
Then there's an email protocol. SMTP: Make sure you memorise all of these protocols before taking your exam or even an it. In the interview, you have to know these port numbers. Now it's time to see something in action because I have been talking for, I don't know, 1020 minutes now and you have not seen anything in action. I want to introduce one command, Netstat, that is going to produce a really nice list of things that your PC is doing at the moment. It will produce a really nice list table. I'm going to add "N" because I don't want DNS to kick in if I spell it netstat. Here we go. It is a list of active connections. OK. Four, four, three.
It means something is browsing the Internet. Now, what I want to show you is that we go to Internet Explorer and type any IP address we want, even something that does not exist. Okay, let's say eight eight eight. And what you do is type the same command again.
And now eight, eight, eight should be on the list. Here we go. Let me highlight that one here. I want to spend two minutes showing it to you. 192-1681 one. That is my source IP address. That's me. Eight, eight, eight. That is the destination IP address. Yes, the one I hired as an intern. Explorer. 80 is the destination port number. Why? because I used Internet Explorer, a web browser. It means that when you look at the list, here we go.
Port 80. It means I'm going to browse the Internet. And this one is a source port number because I need a source port number as well. As a result, we understand how to interpret this message and what to do with it when it arrives. We have a dedicated session to IP versions 4 and 6 at the network layer. It's just a few notes. Network layer three is in charge of determining how to get there; remember when I told you about your current driver?
This is a driver. You decide how to get to the destination. Examples. IPV 4, IPV 6, and ICMP are all protocols. The protocol that is in use when you type "ping data link layer 2" Do you remember switching Mac addresses? Here we are. We're back again. We're going to talk about switches, datalink, data link layer, and layer two. really important, especially for your local area network. Again, your Mac address Here I want to add one piece of information. It's a hardware or physical address. Please memorise that there are 48 bits or a 12-digit hex number. Okay? You have seen that many times. Please keep in mind that this contains 48 bits. A PC, a printer, or a phone will use a source and destination Mac address. Do you remember local area networks? not IP addresses, but Mac addresses. And the last layer is, yes, the physical layer. Okay. Cables. Here again, we have already talked about media types, so you know a lot about cables, right? RJ-45 and RJ-11 fibre cables come to mind.
I'm pretty sure you know all these things. Here. That's layer number one. It will require a frame on layer two. Yeah. And we'll convert that into bits, and then it will go up to date, link, network, and so on. On the other end, that was a really long lecture. There are a lot of important topics. I have covered a lot of things that you have to memorize, not only for your MPA exam. However, if you want to be a network engineer, the OSI model is really, really important. In our next lecture, we're going to talk about IPV 4. Thank you very much.
4. Let’s talk about IPv4 addresses
MTA networking fundamentals Let's talk about IPV Four. In this lecture, we're going to talk about IP addresses, subnet masks, broadcast addresses, network addresses, and everything else that you have to know if you want to go and work as a network engineer. and especially if you want to do subnetting. I'm pretty sure at this stage of your career, you know what an IP address is. I'm not going to explain it to you. I want to focus on two terms: subnet and subnet mask.
A subnet is a separate part of a network, and a subnet mask allows you to identify which part of an IP address is for your network. Can you give me an example of a subnet mask? Do you remember? Yeah, it's 255-255-2550. That is the easiest subnet mask you can imagine. And I will show you what I mean by saying that it identifies your network. Let's say that you have two PCs. This PC is 192-1681, and that PC is 192-1681, 130. Let's label them PC One and PC Two. Now, PC One wants to send a message to PC Two. The first question I'm going to ask is: is PC One on the same network as PC Two? What is your answer?
Are they on the same track? What is your answer? The answer is, "Well, I don't know because you have not given me the subnet mask yet." You need a subnet mask in most cases to identify if these guys are on the same network. How does it work? You take an IP address, 19216 eight, dot one, dot seven, and the destination is 1921 681-130-0130.
The subnet mask, let's say, was 255-255-2550. just to keep it simple for now. Two five. Five means that it is a match, and zero means I don't care. It means that the first three octets, because that's the name, are an octet. The first three digits have to be the same. If you want me to be on the same network, It means that everything that starts with 192.168.1 and then I don't really care is going to be on the same network. That's why this IP address is on the same network as the first one. However, I can come up with another subnetmask that is beyond our discussion for now. We're going to talk about that when we get to subnetting.
I can give you a subnet mask, and then these two PCs here, these two guys, will not be on the same subnet. That's why it is really important to provide a subnet mask. If you go to Windows and try to assign an IP address, Windows will require a subnet mask because it's impossible for IPV4 to work without one. Now, the last thing on this slide is to memorise that we have five classes of IP addresses, classes ABCD and E. And here are the ranges. Unfortunately, I have some bad news for you again. You have to memorise these ranges. There is nothing to explain. You just have to memorise the first and last IP addresses in each range. Make sure you do that for your exam. I'm not sure if you know what's going to happen if your PC is not able to find a DHCP server. There is a backup solution implemented by Microsoft.
You can see that on the screen, Apipa. If a Microsoft Windows PC cannot find a DHCP server and obtain an IP address, it will assign its own IP address from the subnet 16925-4. Every time you see an IP address like that, it indicates that a PC could not get an IP address. In many cases, it is a problem with a DHCP server. However, it might be a network issue. Can you come up with an example, please? I can give you a very simple example. a firewall issue. Your DCP server could be on a different subnet due to a router issue. And unfortunately, your router and firewall are not configured to allow that. It's called THCP relay. If it's not configured by a network engineer, then a PC will never get an IP address from a DCP server.
So do not blame an infrastructure engineer straight away. Do not tell them to go and fix the stupid DHCP server. It's not a network issue. Make sure that there are no problems with your routers and firewalls. Unfortunately, it's beyond our discussion. You will learn about things like that when you get to CCENT, CCNA, CompTIA, and so on. bad news for you. Again, a few things to memorize, and you all go. No, not again. Yes, I am very sorry. We have to memorise private IP ranges. What do you mean by "private IP addresses"? It means they are not rotable. It means they aren't connected to the Internet. Why? When IPV-4 was introduced, people didn't really expect that it would be a great project, as it is today.
And after a few years, they realized, Oh right, we're not going to have enough IP addresses. That's why private IP ranges were created. It means you can only use them within your own network and not on the Internet. So, what do we do? We do not use network address translation not.I'm not sure if you heard about that. not in use for now.
All you have to do is memorise that. There is a thing like that. It allows a router and a firewall to translate a private IP address into a public IP address. And thanks to that, you can browse the Internet. Again, I'm very sorry. You have to memorise it. You can expect a question on your MTA exam. They can give you, for instance, an IP address and ask you, "Is it a private IP address?" That's what I wanted to cover in this session. We talked about IPV four. Our next lecture is on subletting. Yes, we will spend a lot of time talking about subnetting. Stay with me. Thank you very much.
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