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102.4: Use debian package management
In my opinion, one of the biggest advantages of Linux over other operating systems is the software package management. While with Windows systems, you first have to go to the manufacturer's website of the corresponding software product to download, load the file, and then install it. Most Linux distributions already come with a huge software collection. So in the case of Ubuntu, which I use here and which is based on Debian, there are large repositories that can be accessed with a simple command. Thousands of programmes are stored in this software database, all of which have been optimised and tested for Ubuntu. So there is only one software source that you can even tap with a few commands. The basic programme for package management in Debian is called Dpkg. Dpkg stands for Debian package. With the help of Dpkg, you can install Debian binary packages and also uninstall them. Again, the final extension of Debian binary packages is Deb.
Let's take a look at the Dpkg main page. package manager for Debian. Dpkg is a tool to install, build, remove, and manage Debian packages. I once downloaded a DB file from the Internet. The programme discord the DB file. This file is in my downloads directory, as you see. And we can now install the programme as follows: pseudodpkg I for installation and then the Discord DB file. If an automatic configuration did not occur, Skype should now have been installed and configured automatically. It can also be carried out manually with the following commands: pseudo dpkg configure, then discordpackage, and so on, but only by the way. Now we see various error messages here, such as error processing, dependency problems, and so on, which we will come back to in a moment.
I wanted to show another command here first. If we have already configured a program but there is a problem with the configuration, we can reconfigure it. We use the following command for this: pseudo dpkgreconfigure, and then the software package, I believe pseudoDpkg reconfigure, and then Discord, and we see that it is not installed due to the error messages above. And, yes, that is desired because we will discuss where the error messages originate and how to resolve them shortly. First, let me clear the screen. With Dpkg and the option C, we can see what the file structure looks like in the corresponding DB file, so you know in advance where something is going to be installed. We try this out with dpkg, option C, and then discord. And the results show us exactly which directories are created or which files are added to which folders. With Dpkg and the option L, you can see a list of all installed packages on the system. Here we see a very long list of packages that are already installed on our system.
We can go a page down with Space, with whom we can quit. And of course, you can use the command together with Grep to find certain programs. Maybe here. I don't know what this programme is, but we can try it with Dpkgl and then grab PSME s.C. And now it has been shown to us. And so we can quickly find out whether we have installed a programme that includes the name Psmiss. A programme can be removed with Dpkg and the option "R" for remove. However, the corresponding configuration files of the programme are not deleted but remain so that the configuration does not have to be carried out again the next time the programme is installed again.So let's just install another program. In the meantime, I have downloaded another DB file. It is Skype for Linux, sudo dpkg with the option "I" to install Skype for Linux, then dpkg once more. Okay, this file was successfully installed. There are no error messages here, and I quickly wanted to show you another option with dpkg and the option L with a capital letter. It shows us the files and directories of the installed Skype for Linux. And here we can see where it is installed.
If we now want to remove Skype for Linux, for example, we just talked about how we can use dpkg and the option r for remove. But as I said, the corresponding configuration files of the programme are not deleted. If we also want to use it to remove the configuration files, we use the P option with a capital letter or the perch option instead of the R option. This will also delete all files, including the configuration files, so let's do it. It is possible to use pseudodpkg and minus minusperch, or minus capital P and then Skype for Linux: ignore this warning; simply run Dpkg and L, grabSkype, and we'll see that Skype was successfully removed. I mentioned it briefly at the beginning of the video and would like to emphasise it again with Dpkg and package management in general. This is also true for the subsequent lessons.
So apt? Yum, aptitude, and so on. It is really very important to look at the individual options on the main page, to try them out, and to learn, because experience has shown that a lot will be asked about them in the exam. So my advice is to not take the tip too seriously and to not rely on the options presented here as sufficient. These are, in my opinion, the most important options, but I don't know what LPIasked for the exam, and yes, we encountered some error messages while installing Discord a few minutes ago. These error messages said there were dependency problems. This means that Discord needs other files to work properly. We will do that again at this point. What's DPpseudo-DPKGI Discord, and here we have the error messages? Again, if we take a closer look at the error messages, we can see which files Discord needs but cannot find them on our system. Let us see if this one package, "lipatomic," is not installed.
This package is not installed. This is not installed, and this is not installed. In order to be able to install and use Discord correctly, we would have to install the appropriate packages with Dpkg and the option I for install. First, we have to download these files. However, you could be unlucky enough to install one of these files. And when installing the package, we get a message from the package that another file is missing, and we would then also have to install this, and so on. So this can, of course, be very exhausting and annoying, and we may need a lot of time to install missing files. But in the old Linux phase, software installation was like this. Fortunately, this is no longer an issue because there is now an appropriate programme that solves such issues for us. We will talk about this in detail in the next video.
This lesson is about apt. As was briefly mentioned in the last lesson, apt is the acronym for advanced packaging tool. It is actually nothing more than a complete package management system that also uses Dpkg itself for the actual package management. However, in contrast to pure Dpkg, it is also able to resolve missing dependencies independently. Let's take a quick look at the main page's command-line interface. Apt provides a high-level command-line interface for the package management nagement sysWe are not trying to install Discord with the help of Apt. The commodity pseudo-Apt in discord means that Apt should look for the file discord twelve D EB in the directory in which I am currently located, since I am in the downloads directory. So in the same directory as the file I can use, If we hadn't told Apt to use the file from the downloads directory, it would have searched online for discord. That would also work if there is a file in the repositories with the same name, but we will get to that later. Now we want to install the downloaded file. We now get the message that two additional packages need to be installed, and we are asked if we agree to this. So you see here that the following additional packages will be inserted. I see it is a lot more than two. This one, this one, this one, and so forth. And 188 megabytes of additional space will be used, and we will be asked if we want to continue. Yes. So this code was successfully installed and completely configured. We don't see any further error messages. The missing dependencies were resolved automatically, which is of course an absolute advantage of Apt over Dpkg. If you want to delete this card again, we proceed similarly to Dpkg.
We use pseudo-Apt Perch and then discord. We are asked if we really want to remove the program, and we confirm that we do. We can check it with Dpkg and the option "grab discord," and we see that discord is no longer an insult. As just said, you will usually not download files from the Internet. In order to install them, you use your own package sources. What does it mean exactly? Let's look at the following file sources (dot list); please remember this file and the path for the exam.
We see various web addresses here. These are the repositories that can contain thousands of tested software packages for Ubuntu. Here we have a web address with here, a web address here, here, and so on. You can also add further addresses here manually, for example, for third-party repositories, and if you now want to install a program, use the command Apt with the addition install, and before each installation you should update your package sources. So the repositories are affected because Apt usually uses its own cache; if this cache is out of date, the latest version may not be installed or updates may not be available at all.
Therefore, you should always update the package sources before you install anything or update the system. Okay, let's leave this file again. We will update the package sources. We see that Apt gets the content from the individual web addresses. Apt saves this to the cache. We even get the information that updates are available for three packages. Please note that apt update does not mean that a programme is updated, but only that the package sources are updated. It is very important that you remember this because it works a little differently with other systems.
The package sources are now up to date. And now let's install the system updates that were just reported to us. Here we do this with the following command: pseudo-apt disc upgrade, we confirm any inquiries with "yes," and the updates will be installed. Both the operating system and all installed programmes are updated here. That means we can keep the entire system up to date with two simple commands, even if we have installed a thousand additional programs. The two commands "apt upgrade" and "apt full upgrade" also lead to the goal. So, apt upgrade or apt? Full upgrade.
The difference between these two commands is that Apt upgrades, and an Apt upgrade updates everything but does not delete a package. So if a package requests that a certain file be deleted, then Apt Upgrade will refuse to work. In this case, an apt full upgrade would also delete the corresponding files, as would a disc upgrade. Corresponding packages are not deleted directly here either. They remain in the system until the command sudo aptautoremove is executed, which we will see here. This will delete all files that were previously installed.
YouTube was once a dependency, but it is no longer required. And these are the files we enter? Yes. And now the files are deleted. This is regularly the case with kernel updates. There are always two kernels on the system. When a new kernel is installed, the oldest of the now-three kernels is marked for deletion. If we now use pseudo-APT autoremove after installing the kernel, the oldest kernel will be deleted and there will be about 300 megabytes of free space.
Okay, let's try again to install Clear; I want to write Clear. Sorry. Let's try to install another programme called AgeTop via the package sources. So before we tell Apt that the age-topping programme should be installed, we first have to find out what the exact package is called. To do this, we query the Apt cache. We just said that when we perform Aptupdate, the individual package sources are queried and the content is stored in the Apt cache. We now query this cache with the following command: apt cache Apt cache search performs a full-time next search.
AgeTop is searched through all of the available package sources. And due to the full-text search, we also receive packages that are not called HTP. For this one, this one, and this one, if it exists, it will always be there, and it's that one here. In this case, we see the package H at the very top, and it has the same name as the one we are looking for. So we can now install the programme with sudo api install httop. The programme is now installed and can be executed, and it is working fine. With Q. We can leave Htop. Then, using pseudo-apt perch AgeTop, delete Htop once more. Yes. And now Htop is gone. We now want to install two programmes at the same time: Skype and Htop.
We have just found out what the Htop package is called. So let's find out exactly what the Skype package is called with Apt Cash. Skype. Here it is, simply titled Skype for Linux. We can now install two programmes at the same time with Pseudo-Apt install and then Htop and Skype for Linux. In this manner, Skype for Linux is installed one after the other. Okay, let's try it again now that it's been reinstalled, and Skype for Linux is also installed, so I closed. Close it again. We don't need it. It was just an example, as we have seen repeatedly that missing dependencies are automatically resolved with Apt. We can also see these dependencies before installing Apt Cash by running the command apt cache depends on, for example, Skype for Linux, and seeing what dependencies exist. I recommend that you study it intensively and try out other options for yourself.
Okay, so the only thing missing in this section is aptitude. Aptitude is an extension of Apt and can be used both on the command line and with a graphical user interface. Most likely, Aptitude still needs to be started on your system. So this is the case for me. But we now know how the software installation works, so we are installing Aptitude. The difference to Aptitude is that Aptitude locks a lot more, and you can always tell afterwards when a dependency was installed and why. Similar to Apt, you can install a programme with Aptitude using the following command: pseudo aptitude install thunderbird So the syntax is actually the same as with "Apt apt," then it is "pseudo-Apt apt install Thunderbird." That's all it was. Thunderbird will now be installed, and Thunderbird Bot is installed.
Of course, Aptitude can also resolve the missing dependencies independently if you want to delete a package. Again, it works very similarly to Apt. In this case, pseudo-Aptitude removes Thunderbird, but we use Perch so that the configuration files are also deleted. Thunderboard has been removed. Aptitude's package search works as follows: thunderbolt as a reminder; with Apt, it was a command-line apt cache search. With Aptitude, there is no cache. And here we are getting a list of all packages with the word "Thunderbird" in them. So we see that there is a little difference compared to Apt. But I recommend that you look at the individual options and try out a little something so that you are well prepared for the exam.
The most significant distinction between Aptitude and this is the graphical user interface available with Aptitude. This can be achieved by simply calling Aptitude without an option or package name. So we are using pseudo Aptitude.We could also start the graphical user interface without sudo, but then we could not install a programme with Aptitude. In that case, we can only use Aptitude for searching. To install something, we must first prepare sudo. Now we see the graphical user interface of Aptitude. We are in the process of installing packages. Here we can see which packages are already installed, and these are 1522. We have 65,000 packages that are not installed. Below that, we find around 190 virtual packages. Virtual packages mean that other packages are used to provide or request a certain functionality. And at the very bottom, we find around 25,000 tasks.
Tasks are groups of packages that allow you to easily preselect packages for a specific purpose. Let's look at the installed packages. We move the cursor to install packages and press Enter. We see that the install packages are now divided according to function. For example, admins. Let's take a look at that. And we have main and universe switched to main, where we can see programmes like add user or Anacron.
So we can see a list view of which programmes are already installed, and we see a detailed description of this programme here at the bottom, so let's take a look at the packages that are not installed here. Admin again. Act clone. This package can be used to clone and restore the packages on an Apt-based system, and so on. I think the rest of this is self-explanatory. I also wouldn't expect detailed questions about aptitude or the exam. Probably this is how Aptitude is used on the command line, etc. Nevertheless, my recommendation is to always try a little something and get to know the programme properly.
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