Practice Exams:



Hi and welcome to a new knowledge area, the project Quality Management. As we are preparing for the Risk Management Professional exam, there are no highlights for the quality management. You will not be asked directly about the project Quality Management or any of the quality topics in the PMI Rmp exam. So I’m just going to walk through the three processes of the quality management will be a short lecture. So the project Quality Management includes the processes for incorporating the organization’s quality policy regarding planning, managing and controlling project and product quality requirements in order to meet the stakeholders objectives. The quality management also supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization.

So the continuous process improvement to have more efficient processes within the organization is part of the quality management. Now there are two specific outputs of the project Quality Management knowledge area that are used by other knowledge areas, especially the quality reports and the Verified Deliverables. The Verified Deliverables will be an output of the control quality process and will be the primary input for the validate scope process for the user acceptance. So the primary outputs of all the project Quality management processes are the quality reports and the Verified delivery tools.

Now, the three processes of the project quality management are the plan quality Management as part of the planning processing group manage quality as part of the executing processing group controlling Quality as part of the monitoring and controlling processing group we have only three quality management processes as shown here. The quality management is distributed on the three processing groups the planning, the executing and the monitoring and control. Now, as taken from that project management body of knowledge 8. 1 Plant Quality Management 8. 2 Manage Quality 8. 3 Control Quality the tools and techniques of the project Quality Management knowledge area are advanced and they are readily used in other knowledge areas but they are not important for you exam preparation or Risk Management exam preparation.

Now, a few key concepts of the quality management what is the Quality? Is defined as the degree to which the project fulfills its requirements. This definition makes the requirements gathering efforts, the requirements documentation and the Project Scope Statement very important to the quality management efforts. All these efforts, the requirement gathering and the documentation and the project Scope Statement are part of the Scope Management college area. Now, the quality management includes creating and following organization policies and procedures and tailoring them to ensure the project meets the needs of the customer. It’s about completing the project in compliance with its requirements.

Now, what is the difference between the quality and degree or the quality versus degree? The quality is the degree to which a set of characteristics fulfilled its requirements, while the grade is a category of scientific problems having the same functional use but different technical characteristics. Now, the quality level that feels to me the quality requirements is always a problem, while a low grade product may not be a problem. So this is the difference between the quality and the grade. The quality is a must. Failing and achieving the quality is a problem. Why the grade is not amused. Now, I’m going. Now by this example, we understand exactly the difference between the high quality low grade and the low quality high grade.

Now, for a high quality, low grade product, let’s say you buy a low cost basic model. Basic model low grade cell phone for yourself. It does not have any advanced features, but still it works. It never gives you any trouble, always works flawlessly and it’s defect free, no problem at all. So you can see that this is a high quality product. Also it’s a low grade product because you bought a basic modern cell phone. So it’s a low grade product. It keeps you happy and satisfied at all times because the quality is high. This is the quality and this is the grade. Now, high grade, low quality product. Now, suppose you buy another costly premium model cell phone, high grade one.

This cell phone has all advanced features like the touchscreen, the WiFi, the Bluetooth, the camera, voice recognition and face recognition, et cetera. But let’s say the touchscreen proves while you are navigating the phone or the camera is not giving you a good quality and stable pictures, you are having high grade but low quality product. So the low quality will make you not happy or not satisfying. But the low grade can make you still happy and satisfying. This is the difference between the quality and the grade. So what now, the prevention. Prevention means keeping arrows out of the process. Why? The inspection means keeping errors out of the hands of the customers. This is the difference between the prevention and the inspection.

And the prevention is always better. Prevention is preferred over the inspection. It is better to design quality and to deliver rather than to find quality issues during the inspection. So prevention is preferred. The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting mistakes when they are found by inspection of during usage. So think about this and imagine any case in your life you will be sure that the cost of preventing mistakes is always much less than the cost of correcting the mistakes itself. Now, what is the difference between the attributes sampling and the valuable sampling when you are doing an inspection? Just for your information, the attribute sampling is when the results conform or does not conform.

Zero one conform or does not conform. While the valuable sampling is the result rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity. Here in the attribute sampling, it’s either zero out of ten or ten out of ten. In the variable, it can be six out of ten, seven out of ten, two out of ten. This is the difference between the sampling methods. What is the cost of the quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non performance requirements, appraising the product or service for performance to requirements and training to meet requirements failure costs, also called the cost for quality. So this is the cost of quality. It includes the cost of the prevention, the cost of the appraisals, the training all these activities are performed on the cost of quality.

Now, the first process in the quality management is the plan quality Management as part of the planning process group. It’s the process of identifying quality requirements and or standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and or standards. The key benefit of performing the planned quality management process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the quality will be managed and verified throughout the project. And this process is performed once or predefined points throughout the project life. Quality planning should be performed entirely with other plan process. It’s not a discrete process. Inputs of the plan quality management are the project charter, the project management plan.

We have the project documents like the assumption, log requirements, documentation requirements, traceability matrix, risk register, stakeholder register, the enterprise environmental factors and the organization and the process assets. We have a lot of tools and techniques used to plan for the quality management, the expert judgment. We have the data gathering techniques like the benchmarking, brainstorming and interviews, data analysis techniques like the cost benefit analysis and the cost of quality decision making technique, multicriter decision analysis and data presentation techniques like the flow charts, the logical data model matrix and mind mapping, testing and inspection planning in addition to the meetings.

So the primary outcome of this process is the quality management plan and the quality metrics for success measures. At the end of the project, we have a few project management plan components that might be updated like the risk management plan and the scope baseline. The project documents updates like the listens length register, the requirements, the stability matrix, the risk register and the stakeholder register. So what is that quality management plan? It’s a component of the project management plan that describes how applicable policies, procedures and guidelines will be implemented to achieve the quality objective. So it’s a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.

What’s inside the quality management plan? We have the quality standards that will be used in the project, the quality objectives of the project, quality roles and responsibilities and processes subject to quality review, who will do what when it comes to the quality management, quality control and quality management activities planned for the project. Sorry. Major procedures relevant for the project such as dealing with non conformance and corrective actions procedures. These are the primary sections of the quality management plan. Now, the executing part of the quality management is the managed quality process.

It’s the process of translating the quality management plan into executable quality activities that incorporate the organization’s quality policies into the project. The key benefits of this process is that increases the probability of meeting the quality objectives. Also it will identify ineffective processes and causes of poor quality. Managed quality process uses the data and results from the control quality process to reflect the overall quality status of the project to the key stakeholders. And this process is sometimes called the QA process or the quality assurance is about using the project processes effectively. It involves following and meeting standards to assure stakeholders that the final product will meet their needs and expectations.

Now, the inputs of this process are the project management plan, the project documents and the organizational process assets while the tools and techniques are the data gathering techniques, data analysis techniques like the alternative analysis, document analysis, process analysis and root cause analysis. We have decision making techniques like the multic criteria decision analysis, data representation techniques, flow charts, identity diagrams, pose and defect diagrams, histograms Mattex diagrams, scatter diagrams. We have also the quality others, the design for its advanced technique, problem solving techniques and metals for improving the quality of outputs.

The primary output is the quality report of the quality reports, disk and evaluation documents, change requests, project management plan updates like the quality management plan and the three baselines. The project documents updates like the dissolution name register, the issue log and the rest register. So what’s the quality report? It can be graphical, numerical or qualitative report. Information provided upon can be used in other processes to take corrective actions in order to achieve the project quality expectations. This information can include all quality management issues escalated by the team recommendations for project process and product improvements.

These are the information available within the quality reports. The last process we have is the control quality as a part of the monitoring and controlling process group. It’s the process monitoring and recording results of executing the quality management activities in order to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete, correct and meet the customer needs. The key benefit of this process is verifying that the key deliverables and work meet the requirements specified by the key stakeholders for final acceptance and the output of this process will be the verified deliverable. These verified deliverable will be an input to the validates scope process for the final acceptance of the user.

The control quantity cost determines if the project outputs do what they were intended to do. It is performed to measure the completeness compliance and fitness for use of a product or service prior to user acceptance and final delivery. This process as part of the monitoring and controlling process, group is performed throughout the project control, quality inputs, project management plan, project documents approved, change requests, deliverables work, performer data, organizational process assets, enterprise environmental factors, tools and techniques of the data gathering techniques like the checklist check sheets, statistical helping questioners and surveys.

Data analysis techniques, performance reviews, road codes, analysis, inspection, testing and product evaluation. Data representation techniques like the cost and effect, the control charts, histograms and scatter diagrams. The only one I’m going to explain is the control charts you might see in the question. The PMI are example linked to the control charts. The outputs are the quality control measurements. This is the most important output that verifies the problems, which will be an input to the validated scope, process board performance, information, change requests, project management plan dates, especially the quality management plan, project documents, updates, listens learned register, the issue log, the risk register and the distance evaluation documents.

So what’s the control charts? They are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. This is why we are using the control charts as a part of controlling the project. Quality control charts are established in managed quality process. The parameters such as the mean specification limits and control limits are determined. It is used in the control quality process. Now, during the control quality process, samples are taken and plotted on this control chart to show that the samples are within acceptable limits or not.

So what are the control limits, what are the specification limits and what is the mean upper and lower control limits? Control limits are often shown as dashed lines on the control chart. They are the acceptable range of variation of process or measurement service. It indicates what is stable versus unstable in the process. And the project manager and stakeholders determine the appropriate upper and lower control limits or quality matrix on a project. So the upper and lower control limits values are determined by the key stakeholders and the project managers. The main or the average indicated as the line in the middle of a controlled chop. It shows the middle of the range of acceptable variations.

It’s the average between the upper and lower control limits. The specification limits. While the control limits represent the performing organization standards for quality, specification limits represent the customer’s expectation or the contractual requirements for quality performance. They are inputs from the customer and cannot be calculated to meet customer specifications limits. The performing organization standards for quality or control limits must be stricter than the customer wants. Here is the control chart. Now first of all, we have the upper specification limit. This is the specification limit. We have the lower specification limit. And this line is the upper control limit.

And this is the lower control limit. This is the mean or the average represented by this line. And these points, the small squares, black squares are the samples taken from the process. So we have sample number one, sample number two, sample number three and so on. When a sample falls outside the control limit, this is an out of control scenario or when there is seven points close together in this way, it’s called the rule of seven and this indicates a non stable scenario. So this is the control chart as part of the control quality for the quality management. It’s good to know the terms I explained in this lecture. No more is required for the PMI RP exam. Thank you so much. And you see at the next lecture.